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1. Privation 2. <ul><li>Genie – locked in a room until age 13 because her father thought she was retarded.…
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  • 1. Privation
  • 2. <ul><li>Genie – locked in a room until age 13 because her father thought she was retarded. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never fully recovered socially, showed disinterest in other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports Bowlby’s ‘sensitive age’ theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Czech twins – spent first 7 years of their lives locked up by stepmother. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After discovery, lovingly cared for by two sisters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By age 20, they had above average intelligence, and good relationships with foster family </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>Institution – patients live there (as opposed to day care, where they go home every night) </li></ul>Institutionalisation – young children admitted to institutional care respond with acute distress What do you think are the effects of an institution on a child’s development?
  • 4. <ul><li>Longitudinal study that followed group of 65 children from early life to adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>All had been placed in an institution since 4 months old (had not yet formed attachments). Children were assessed until age 16. </li></ul><ul><li>Most children eventually left the institution, and moved back with family or foster parents </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Results : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% assessed as ‘not able to care deeply about anyone’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group that lived with foster family formed ‘normal’ attachments with foster parents; group restored to families less likely to form attachments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both groups had difficulties forming friendships, more quarrelsome, more likely to be bullies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early privation has a negative effect on ability to form relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports Bowlby’s ‘sensitive period’ </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Romanian orphanages
  • 7. <ul><li>Rutter et al. (2007) studied orphans left over from wars in Eastern Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Studied 100 Romanian orphans at 4, 6, and 11 yrs old </li></ul><ul><li>Findings : </li></ul><ul><li>Children adopted to good families before 6 months old showed normal emotional development. </li></ul><ul><li>Children adapted after 6 months old showed disinhibited attachment and had problems with peers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disinhibited attachment : Type of disorganised attachment. Children are overly friendly to strangers and are attention-seeking. </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>No preferred attachment figure </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to interact and relate to others before the age of five </li></ul><ul><li>Experience of severe neglect or frequent change of caregivers </li></ul><ul><li>Two types : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactive/inhibited : shy, withdrawn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disinhibited : Overly friendly and attention seeking </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>Children from institutions are usually physically small from lack of emotional care </li></ul><ul><li>Gardner (1972) studied 8 month old girl who was never cuddled. She was physically stunted and withdrawn. With attention from hospital staff, she soon returned to normal </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional disturbances may affect the production of growth hormones </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Privation alone cannot explain negative outcomes. 1/3 of the Romanian children developed normal attachments. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be certain that the children did not form attachments. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers unsure of effects into late adult life. </li></ul>
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