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1. The Psychodynamic Approach <br />By Michelle, Amy, Jasmine, <br />Hollyjane & Rosie <br /> 2. Assumptions<br />The Psychodynamics is a view…
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  • 1. The Psychodynamic Approach <br />By Michelle, Amy, Jasmine, <br />Hollyjane & Rosie <br />
  • 2. Assumptions<br />The Psychodynamics is a view that abnormal behaviour is caused by underline psychological forces of which the individual is probably unaware.<br />This approach was developed by Freud et al in the latter part of the nineteenth century, through intense work with mentally disordered patients. <br />They challenged the suggestion that mental disorders had physical origins and instead believed that behaviour arose from the dynamic workings of the personality or psyche.<br />Freud also believed that childhood experiences often had an impact on the individual as an adult and that the personality consisted of three interrelated structures that are bound to be in conflict with one another.<br />They are as follows; <br />
  • 3. The ego – This is a person’s conscious. A well-adjusted person will have developed an ego that can cope with both demands of the id and the superego by allowing expression at appropriate times. However if the ego is too weak, it may become dominated by the id and the superego. <br />The id – If the id is completely selfish and if impulses emerge uncheck they are often expressed as destructiveness and immorality. This may lead to disorders in childhood as well as later in life. <br />The Superego – If the superego is too strong it restricts the individual will be deprived of even socially acceptable pleasures. Freud believed this could cause neurosis, which can be expressed as anxiety disorders such as phobias and obsessions. The superego develops through a process of socialization when people learn moral standards and expectations within their culture. <br />
  • 4. Treatments<br />Psychodynamic (psychoanalytic) psychotherapy<br />Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)<br />Family and Marital Therapy<br />Cognitive Analytical Therapy (CAT)<br />Counselling<br />Dream Analysis<br />Psychoanalysis<br />Hypnosis<br />Free Association<br />
  • 5. Does It Work?<br />Sometimes, but not always. <br />Psychodynamic therapy has got a scientific record of its effectiveness for certain conditions (e.g. depression). The experts tend to argue amongst themselves whether it works, but we think the best judge of the issue is the patients themselves. <br />However, equally a lot of patients really disliked it. These people tended to drop out of therapy quite quickly. <br />Like in all therapies, there are no guarantees. <br />
  • 6. Primitive Defence Mechanisms<br /><ul><li>These are effects of early childhood memories.
  • 7. We behave in these ways in order to protect ourselves.
  • 8. A way in which people distance themselves from unpleasant thoughts, behaviours and feelings.
  • 9. There are 15 main defence mechanisms:</li></li></ul><li>1. Denial<br /><ul><li>This is the refusal to accept reality.
  • 10. This is acting as if a painful thought, feeling or memory doesn’t exist.
  • 11. It is considered as one of the most primitive of these defence mechanisms because it is characteristic of early childhood development.
  • 12. Many people use denial in their everyday lives to avoid dealing with painful feelings or areas of their lives they don’t wish to admit.</li></li></ul><li>2. Regression<br /><ul><li>This is having unacceptable thoughts or impulses.
  • 13. For example this can be growing sexual impulses, they might become clingy and start exhibiting earlier childhood behaviours they have long since overcome, such as bedwetting.</li></li></ul><li>3. Acting Out<br /><ul><li>This is performing in extreme behaviour in order to express your thoughts and feelings.
  • 14. Instead of saying how you feel, you show it physically. Self-harming may also be a form of acting out. Instead of expressing it emotionally you express it in physical pain. </li></li></ul><li>4. Dissociation<br /><ul><li>This is when a person loses track of time and/or person, and instead finds another representation of their self in order to continue in the moment.
  • 15. A person who dissociates often loses track of time or themselves and their usual thought processes and memories.
  • 16. People who have a history of any kind of childhood abuse often suffer from some form of dissociation. They can “disconnect” from the real world for a time, and live in a different world that is not cluttered with thoughts, feelings or memories that are unbearable</li></li></ul><li>5. Compartmentalization<br /><ul><li>This is a lesser form of dissociation.
  • 17. Parts of oneself are separated from the awareness of other parts and behaving as if one has separate sets of values.</li></li></ul><li>7. Reaction formation<br /><ul><li>This is the converting of unwanted or dangerous thoughts, feelings or impulses into the opposite.</li></li></ul><li>8. Repression<br /><ul><li>This is the unconscious blocking of unacceptable thoughts, feelings and impulses.
  • 18. As people do it unconsciously, they have very little control over it.
  • 19. “Repressed Memories” are memories that have been unconsciously been blocked from access or view.</li></li></ul><li>9. Displacement<br /><ul><li>This is the re-directing of thoughts feelings and impulses directed at one person / object but instead is taken out on another person / object.
  • 20. People will often use displacement if they cannot express their feelings in a safe manner to the person they are directed at.
  • 21. This is a ineffective defence mechanism because it will often cause additional problems for most people.</li></li></ul><li>10. Intellectualisation <br /><ul><li>This is the overemphasis on thinking when confronted with an unacceptable thought, feeling or impulse, without employing any emotions what-so-ever.
  • 22. Rather than dealing with the painful associated emotions a person might employ intellectualisation to distance themselves from the impulse, situation or behaviour.</li></li></ul><li>11. Rationalization<br /><ul><li>This is putting something into a different light or offering a different explanation for ones behaviour.</li></li></ul><li>12. Undoing<br /><ul><li>This is the attempt to take back an unconscious behaviour that is unacceptable or hurtful.
  • 23. By “undoing” the action the person is hoping to over right the previous behaviour.</li></li></ul><li>13. Sublimation<br /><ul><li>This is simply changing unacceptable thoughts, feelings and impulses into acceptable ones.
  • 24. For example a person who has unacceptable sexual feelings that they do not want to act upon may instead focus on a righteous exercise.</li></li></ul><li>14. Compensation<br /><ul><li>This is a process of psychologically counter bouncing perceived weaknesses.
  • 25. A person recognises that they can’t be good at all things. While they may be good at something, they will establish that they are not as good at something else.
  • 26. This can help to reinforce someone's self esteem as well as their self image.</li></li></ul><li>15. Assertiveness<br /><ul><li>This is the emphasis of a persons needs in a manner that is respectful, direct and firm.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Defence Mechanisms are often learned behaviours, most of which we learn during our childhood.
  • 27. Defence Mechanisms can be helpful when identifying behaviours you would like to reduce.</li></li></ul><li>Evaluation <br />Validity<br />Although the Freudian theory is very influential, it has been proved very difficult to test and is therefore lacking validity. However some psychologists say that just because it cannot be scientifically proved doesn’t mean its invalid-it just means no ones found a way to prove it yet<br />Defence mechanisms<br />Although these methods are useful, they do not offer a long term solution, are difficult to demonstrate…<br />
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