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1. Psychology Factors affecting the accuracy of EWT Memory (PSYA1) Factors affecting the accuracy of EWT There are 5 factors that have been found to affect the accuracy…
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  • 1. Psychology Factors affecting the accuracy of EWT Memory (PSYA1) Factors affecting the accuracy of EWT There are 5 factors that have been found to affect the accuracy of EWT. • Schema • Age of the witness • Anxiety • Consequences • Individual Differences
  • 2. What Factor this How this affects the accuracy of EWT Psychology Factors affecting the accuracy of EWT Memory (PSYA1) refers to Schema Instead of List (1986) ‘Reconstructive storing an List drew up a list of elements that might occur in a typical shoplifting scenario. Memory’ exact replica She asked people to rate these events in terms of how likely they were to occur in of events, we a typical shoplifting incident. blend the She then compiled a video showing eight different shoplifting incidents and elements of included some elements that people had rated as high probability and some that our own people had rated as low probability. She then showed the video to a new set of knowledge participants and asked them, a week later, to recall what they had seen. and She found that participants were more likely to recall high probability events than experience to low probability events and that they often reported seeing high probability make it more elements that had not actually been included in the video at all. memorable Tuckey and Brewer (2003) ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Lindsay et al (2004) _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Age of the The age of the Poole and Lindsay (2001) witness witness has Poole and Lindsay engaged children aged 3 to 8 in a science demonstration. The been shown parents of the children then read them a story, which contained some of the to affect the elements of the science demonstration but also included novel information. accuracy of The children were then questioned about the science demonstration and it was their EWT. found that they had incorporated much of the new information (i.e. from the Research parents’ story) into their original memory. looks at both In another phase of the experiment, the children were asked to think very children and carefully about where they had got their information from (this is called source the elderly monitoring) and some of the older children then revised their account of the science demonstration and extracted the post-event information. However, the younger children did not seem able to do this. This has important implications for measuring the accuracy of small children’s testimony since they seem very poor at source monitoring. Dekle (1996) Conflicting Loftus and Burns (1982) Anxiety views on how Participants were shown a video where a boy was shot in the face. Participants anxiety affects had significantly impaired recall for events running up to the incident. the accuracy of EWT Loftus (1979) – ‘Weapon effect’ depending on _________________________________________________________________ whether they _________________________________________________________________ were based on real life _________________________________________________________________ events or _________________________________________________________________ carried out in a lab _________________________________________________________________ Christianson and Hubinette (1993) _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________
  • 3. Psychology Factors affecting the accuracy of EWT Memory (PSYA1) _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Flin et al (1992) _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Gordon et al (2001) Children are particularly susceptible to suggestion and their accounts should be viewed with caution. Davies (1994) _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Yarmey (1984) 80% of elderly participants compared to only 20% of younger adults failed to mention the attacker in a scenario had a knife. Cohen and Faulkner (1989) _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________
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