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1. Emotion-Focused and Problem-Focused approaches It has been suggested that people have a particular style of coping with stress 2. COPE scale <ul><li>Carver…
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  • 1. Emotion-Focused and Problem-Focused approaches It has been suggested that people have a particular style of coping with stress
  • 2. COPE scale <ul><li>Carver et al (1989) produced a coping questionnaire on coping styles . It had 15 different coping strategies and provides a good range of the methods people use. E.g. denial, humour, seeking support </li></ul><ul><li>A more flexible idea is that stress has practical demands and an emotional impact and the individual will target one or the other. </li></ul>
  • 3. Problem-focused coping
  • 4. Problem- focused coping <ul><li>A coping style that tries to target the causes of stress in practical ways that directly reduces the impact of the stressor. </li></ul><ul><li>This can involve reducing the demands of the stressor by directly and actively coping in some way. E.g. You are getting stressed with the pressure of exams so you write a revision timetable </li></ul>
  • 5. Emotion focused coping
  • 6. Emotion focused coping <ul><li>A coping style that targets the emotional impact of stressors. </li></ul><ul><li>This can involve cognitive strategies such as denial, (avoiding the stressor) so go out and not think about your exams, or distraction so go to the cinema with friends to think about something else. </li></ul><ul><li>It can also involve behavioural strategies by finding ways of venting the emotion – either by anger, smoking and drinking or seeking emotional support </li></ul>
  • 7. Evaluation of problem-focused coping <ul><li>This provides a long term solution as you change and control the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological stress management techniques can be applied and re-applied in new situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Not appropriate for all situations </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences – not all people able to take control. Low self esteem will lead to avoidance of problem focused coping. </li></ul>
  • 8. Evaluation of emotion-focused coping <ul><li>Useful when the situation cannot be changed </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation techniques can be used in different situations </li></ul><ul><li>Does not provide a long term solution </li></ul><ul><li>May have negative effect as it delays the person dealing with the problem </li></ul>
  • 9. Overall evaluation <ul><li>Different problems require different techniques/strategies </li></ul><ul><li>It is difficult to assess coping styles </li></ul><ul><li>Different strategies suit different people </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences – women prefer emotion-focused. (Brody and Hall) </li></ul><ul><li>Tennen found the strategies were interacted and used simultaneously </li></ul>
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