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1. G541 – psychological investigations. Complete the following exercises before doing the practice questions A researcher wants to investigate the effect of the…
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  • 1. G541 – psychological investigations. Complete the following exercises before doing the practice questions A researcher wants to investigate the effect of the temperature of a classroom on psychology students’ pupils learning. On day one the researcher has the heating set to 25˚C in the classroom and records how much the students have learnt using a 20 question multiple-choice test. On day two the researcher uses the same class but has room temperature set to 15˚C in the classroom. Again, a 20 question multiple-choice test is used to test how much the students have learnt. Results were summarised in this table: Participant number 25˚C Score out of 20 15˚C score out of 20 1 13 18 2 12 17 3 14 16 4 15 11 5 13 18 6 11 17 Mean score out of 20 13 17 An examiner asks the following two questions: 1. Outline the sampling technique that the researcher could use in this study. [4 marks] 2. Outline a strength and a weakness of the sampling technique used in this study. [6 marks] Two students give the following responses to question 1: 1st student - “An opportunity sample would involve measuring the behaviour of whichever participants are available at the time”. 2nd student – “In order to generalise the findings regarding the effect of room temperature on learning to the population of all psychology students in the United Kingdom, it would be important to study a representative sample. As a random sample is practically impossible to select as every psychology student in the country would have to have an equal chance of been chosen, the researcher would opt for an opportunity sample. In this study opportunity sampling would involve the researcher measuring the behaviour of whichever psychology students are available to be studied and who fit the criteria that the experimenter is looking for. The sample of six students should in this case consist of people who could be described as average psychology students aged 16-19” • With different colours highlight the technical terms and explicit examples evident in the two responses. • What does the examiner feel about the two responses? • Which of the students will not be awarded any marks and why?
  • 2. • Any other comments about the responses? Good or not so good? Reasons?
  • 3. To answer question 2 some students have said the following: 1st student: “There might be difficulties to use this sampling technique” 2nd student: “There are strengths in using this way of sampling” 3rd student: “There are many advantages to using opportunity sampling in the context of studying learning by psychology students, assuming that the sixth form at the school comprises students from a variety of backgrounds and that there is an equal balance of males and females in the psychology class that is available and forms the opportunity sample.” • Explain why the first two students would score no marks while the third student would get half the marks available. Annotate the students’ work. • What can we do to improve these answers? • Rewrite the response outlining an advantage and disadvantage of opportunity sampling. • Write the answers to questions 1 and 2 using self selected/volunteer sample as the sampling method. An examiner asks the following question: 3. What ethical issues should the researcher consider while conducting this experiment? [4 marks] Complete this grid: What is this? Explicit example from the scenario which indicates this is may be an issue Deception Informed consent Protection from psychological and physical harm Response to question 3:
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