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1. Practice questions on Research Methods for AS Psychology Researchers wanted to investigate how the way that words are presented would affect memory performance in…
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  • 1. Practice questions on Research Methods for AS Psychology Researchers wanted to investigate how the way that words are presented would affect memory performance in adults. 1. What is term for the part of a study that describes what researchers want to investigate? ........................................................................................................................................ (1 mark) The researchers designed a study. They recruited Ps from the local shopping centre, ensuring that they were over 16yrs. Researchers explained to Ps what they would be asked to do before asking if they were happy to participate. Ps were told that they had the right to withdraw from the study at any point. Half of the Ps who agreed to take part were then shown words which had been organised into categories (Group 1), and the other half were shown a random set of unrelated words (Group 2). The Ps were then asked to recall the words in writing. The number of words recalled correctly by Ps are shown in Table 1 below. All Ps were debriefed at the end of the study. Table 1. showing number of words recalled correctly by Ps P Group 1 – Group 2 – shown shown organised random words words 9 6 3 5 7 1 7 3 8 5 6 4 7 6 6 4 5 3 5 9 Total Mean Range 2. What sort of experimental design was used in the study? ........................................................................................................................................(1 mark)
  • 2. 2 3. Why might researchers have chosen to use this design? ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) 4. What type of method was used in the study? ......................................................................................................................................... (1 mark) 5. What sampling method did researchers use? .......................................................................................................................................... (1 mark) 6. What is one advantage and one disadvantage of the sampling method that researchers used? ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ .......................................................................................................................................(2 + 2 marks) 7. Identify two ethical issues which researchers dealt with, and how did they deal with each of these? ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ Vicky Newham Jan 2010 – practice questions for Research Methods for AQA (A)
  • 3. 3 ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ .......................................................................................................................................(2 + 2 marks) 8. What is a pilot study, and why might researchers want to use the study described here as a potential pilot study? ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................... ( 2 marks) 9. Identify two extraneous variables which may have affected the results of the study, and explain briefly how each of these may have affected the performance of Ps. ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ .......................................................................................................................................(2 + 2 marks) 10. Explain briefly how researchers could have controlled for the effects of the extraneous variables which you have identified in (6) above. ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ .......................................................................................................................................(2 + 2 marks) Vicky Newham Jan 2010 – practice questions for Research Methods for AQA (A)
  • 4. 4 11. How might demand characteristics have affected the results of the study? ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) 12. How might experimenter effects have affected the results of the study? ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) 13. What is the operationalised independent variable (IV) in the study, and what is the operationalised dependent variable (DV)? DV = ................................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................................ IV = ..................................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................................ (2 + 2 marks) 14. Based on your knowledge of how organisation affects memory, write a directional experimental hypothesis for the study. Please ensure that it is fully operationalised. ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) Vicky Newham Jan 2010 – practice questions for Research Methods for AQA (A)
  • 5. 5 15. Why is the hypothesis likely to be directional? ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ....(2 marks) 16. Write a non-directional hypothesis for this study. ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ....(2 marks) 17. Comment on the internal and external validity of this study. Give reasons for your comments on both of these. ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ .......................................................................................................................................(2 + 2 marks) 18. Calculate the total, the mean, and the range for both groups, and show these values in the table below. P Group 1 – shown Group 2 – shown random organised words words Total Mean Range Vicky Newham Jan 2010 – practice questions for Research Methods for AQA (A)
  • 6. 6 19. Briefly explain one disadvantage of using the mean, and one advantage of using the range to analyse data. ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ .......................................................................................................................................(2 + 2 marks) 20. Describe the findings of the study, based on the raw data, and the descriptive statistics. ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................(4 marks) 21. The third P in Group 2 accurately recalled 1 word from the list. Give one reason why this result may have arisen. ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) Vicky Newham Jan 2010 – practice questions for Research Methods for AQA (A)
  • 7. 7 22. Use your knowledge of memory to explain why Ps shown words organised into categories are likely to have accurately recalled a greater number of words than Ps shown random, unrelated words. ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) 23. Researchers would not have been able to use an observational study to investigate their aim. Why would an observational study not be suitable in this situation? ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) 24. What is one advantage and one disadvantage of using observational methods in Psychology? ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ .......................................................................................................................................(2 + 2 marks) 25. This study used a particular sampling method. Name the two other sampling methods used in Psychology. ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) Vicky Newham Jan 2010 – practice questions for Research Methods for AQA (A)
  • 8. 8 Vicky Newham Jan 2010 – practice questions for Researc
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