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1. <ul><li>Limitations:Many social studies have ethical problems.Another problem is realism…many studies are conducted in simulations or lab…
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  • 1. <ul><li>Limitations:Many social studies have ethical problems.Another problem is realism…many studies are conducted in simulations or lab settings…..not able to show how realistically others can influence our behaviour.Mostly conducted in the west (USA)….hard to generalise the results….other cultures/social situations can be different.Advantages:Helps us to understand how we behave when we are in groups.Helps us to understand the behaviour we see in humans.Helps us to understand how far other people influence our behaviour.SocialStudies:MilgramReicher and HaslamPiliavin, Rodin and PiliavinAssumptions:Concerned with the ways our interactions with other people affect the way we think, feel, and behave.Concerned with the way we make sense of ourselves or how we judge ourselves.Concerned with how we relate to others….includes areas such as conflict, cooperation and relationships.
  • 2. Studies:Samuel and bryantBanduraFreudAssumptions:Development is an ongoing process.Changes over a persons lifetime as a result of inhertied factors or lifetime experiences…..nature/nurture.</li></ul>Developmental<br />Limitations:Ethics.Longitudinal studies can become subjective and are time consuming and expensive.Difficult to replicate longitudinal studies.Advantages:allows us to explain apparently abnormal behaviour in children.Research in this area provides us with an understanding of how humans develop and change over the whole of their lifetime.Longitudinal studies are rich in data and allows you to look at the development of an individual over a period of time.<br /><ul><li>Limitations:Methods used often means that the results lack ecological validity.Findings do not allways show cause and effect relationships.Advantages:Uses scientific and objective methods to study behaviour.Has led to a greater understanding of the physiology of the brain.Practical applications…finding out what parts of the brain are respnsible for a condition…..treatment or surgery can be developed to alleviate conditions.PhysiologicalStudies:SperryDement and KleitmanMaguireAssumptions:People are biological machines and behaviour is significantly determined by any or some of our genes, brain structure and function, hormones.We all have the same biological make up and are even almost identical in our genetic structures to most animals…in particular primates.
  • 3. Limitations:Research often lacks ecological validity….conducted in artificial labaratory settings.Advantages:Quite scientific….easier to show cause and effect.Uses objective measures.Very useful applications.CognitiveStudies:Loftus and palmerBaron cohenSavage rumbaughAssumptions:Behaviour is explained in terms of how the mind works.The mind works like a computer ….we input, store, then retrieve data.
  • 4. Limitations:Cannot make generalisations from case studies alone.Data provided can often be subjective and open to interpretation suffering from bias.Tests may have problems of reliability and validity.Advantages:Can help to make generalisations.Can provide an insight into the complexity of human experience or behaviour.Can be used to explain behaviourIndividualStudies:Rosenhan GriffithsThigpen and cleckleyAssumptions:Focuses on the way peple differ.What makes us individual….makes us behave as individuals…e.g. intelligence and personality, gender, race, or abnormality etc.
  • 5. Limitations:Too simplistic to explain human behaviour.Deterministic approach…as it assumes that we are conditioned or reinforced then we will do certain things or behave in a certain way.Advantages:.lots of empirical research….evidenceCan be used in society/everyday lifeBehaviouristStudies:Savage rumbaughBanduraMilgramReicher and haslampiliavinAssumptions:All behaviour is learned.Stimulus-response….the process by ehich behaviour is learned.
  • 6. Limitations:Little empirical evidence…mostly case studies.Often culturally or historically biased.Advantages:Still used in society e.g. psychotherapy.Explains many different aspects of human behaviour.PsychodynamicStudies:FreudThigpen and cleckleyAssumptions:Behaviour is ruled by the unconciousInnate drives (often sexual) cause our behaviour.
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