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1. AS Research Methods Revision BookletContains past exam questions to help revise each section of the topic Methods and techniques 1 2. Experimental method, including…
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  • 1. AS Research Methods Revision BookletContains past exam questions to help revise each section of the topic Methods and techniques 1
  • 2. Experimental method, including laboratory, field and natural 1. A experimentspsychologist assessed the aggressive behaviour of 100 five-year-old children whowere starting school. The children had attended day care for at least 20 hours a week.Fifty of the children had attended day nurseries. The other fifty children had beenlooked after by childminders. The children who attended the day nurseries were moreaggressive than the children who had been looked after by childminders.Explain why this is an example of a natural experiment................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (2 marks)2. Explain why it might be better to carry out research into eyewitness testimony inthe real world, rather than in a laboratory................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (3 marks)A psychologist carried out a field experiment to investigate the accuracy of eyewitnesstestimony. The participants were pupils and parents attending a school concert. Justbefore the concert began, two professional actors had an argument on stage. Duringthe argument, one actor pushed the other actor. Both actors then left the stage.Some of the audience were approached as they left the concert and asked to take partin an experiment. Those who agreed were taken to a quiet room and were askedsome questions about the argument. For some participants, the questions included“Did you see the man in the glasses push the other man?” In fact, neither man waswearing glasses.The participants were then asked to describe the arguments in their own words.3. What is a field experiment?........................................................................................................................ 2
  • 3. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ (2 marks)4. Other than ethical issues, outline one weakness of using a field experiment in thisinvestigation................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (2 marks) Studies using a correlational analysis5. Outline one strength and one weakness of using correlational research toinvestigate the effects of day care.Strength................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Weakness................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ (2 marks + 2 marks) Observational techniques 3
  • 4. 6. Give one advantage of using observation in psychological research................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (2 marks) Self-report techniques including questionnaire and interview7. Questionnaires and interviews are both self-report techniques. Explain oneadvantage and one disadvantage of using a questionnaire rather than an interview.Advantage................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Disadvantage................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ (4 marks) Case studiesPsychologists sometimes use case studies to study children. One example was of aboy who was discovered at the age of six. He had been kept in a darkened room andhad had almost no social contact with people.8. How could a psychologist maintain confidentiality when reporting a case study?........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4
  • 5. ........................................................................................................................ (2 marks)9. Psychologists use a range of techniques to gather information in case studies.Outline one technique which the psychologist could use in this case study................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (2 marks)10. Apart from ethical issues, explain one or more limitations of using case studies................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (4 marks)Extra space................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Investigation design 5
  • 6. Hypotheses, including directional and non-directionalA psychologist carried out an experiment using an independent groups design. Thepsychologist wished to investigate the effectiveness of a strategy for memoryimprovement. In one condition, participants were taught a memory improvementstrategy. In the other condition, participants were not taught this memoryimprovement strategy. All participants were asked to memorise 10 pictures of familiarobjects. For example, the first was a doll, the second was an apple. All participantswere then given 50 pictures each, and asked to select the original 10.11. Write a directional hypothesis for this experiment................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (2 marks)A researcher carried out an experiment to investigate how many numbers could beheld in short-term memory. The participants were 15 children and 15 adults.Participants were asked to repeat lists of random numbers, in the correct order, assoon as they were read out by the researcher. For example, when the researcher said,“3, 4, 2, 8” the participant immediately repeated “3, 4, 2, 8”. When the researcherthen said, “7, 5, 9, 6, 4” the participant immediately repeated “7, 5, 9, 6, 4”. Onenumber was added to the list each time until participants were unable to recall the listcorrectly. Each participant’s maximum digit span was recorded.12. Write an appropriate non-directional hypothesis for this experiment................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (2 marks) Experimental design (independent groups, repeated measures and matched pairs)13. Explain what is meant by an independent groups design......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6
  • 7. ........................................................................................................................ (1 mark)14. Explain one strength and one limitation of using an independent groups design.Strength................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Limitation................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ (2 marks + 2 marks)A researcher carried out an experiment to investigate misleading information.Participants were shown a photograph in which a man and a woman were talking. Thephotograph was then taken away and the participants were asked questions about it.Participants were randomly allocated to condition one or condition two.Participants in condition one were asked:Question A “How old was the youth in the photograph?”Participants in condition two were asked:Question B “How old was the man in the photograph?”15. Name an appropriate experimental design which could be used in this experiment.Explain why a repeated measures design would be unsuitable to use in thisexperiment.Experimental design................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Explanation 7
  • 8. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ (1 mark + 3 marks)Extra space................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Design of naturalistic observations, including the development and use of behavioural categoriesSome research has suggested that there is a relationship between the time childrenwend in day care and their aggressive behaviour. Researchers selected a group ofschool children who had been in day care. They asked the children’s mothers toestimate how many hours a week their children had spent in day care. They measuredhe same children’s aggression.16. Suggest one way in which the children’s aggression could be measured................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (2 marks) Design of questionnaires and interviews 8
  • 9. A psychologist investigated the effect of different forms of day care on children’s latersocial development. She selected two different types of day care: • child minders; • day nurseries.The children had been in one of these types of day care full-time for at least a yearbefore they started primary school. Each child’s mother was asked to complete aquestionnaire.17. Write one suitable question which could be used in the questionnaire to producequantitative data................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (2 marks)18. Write one suitable question which could be used in the questionnaire to producequalitative data. (2 marks)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) Operationalisation of variables, including independent and dependent variablesA psychologist showed participants 100 different cards, one at a time. Each card hadtwo unrelated words printed on it, eg DOG, HAT. Participants in one group wereinstructed to form a mental image to link the words. Participants in the other groupwere instructed simply to memorise the words. After all the word pairs had beenpresented, each participant was shown a card with the first word of each pair printedon it. Participants were asked to recall the second word.The following results were found. 9
  • 10. 19. What is the independent variable (IV) in this study?.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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