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1. Life changes Define what is meant by the term life changes. Give three examples of what can be considered as life changes. Who devised the life changes scale? What…
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  • 1. Life changes Define what is meant by the term life changes. Give three examples of what can be considered as life changes. Who devised the life changes scale? What does a score of over 150 and over 300 mean?
  • 2. Answers <ul><li>Events in a person’s life (i.e. bereavement) that require a significant adjustment in various aspects of a person’s life. As such, they are significant sources of stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce/minor violation of the law/death of spouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Holmes & Rahe(1967) 5000 patients-43 life events. </li></ul><ul><li>150=30% greater chance of illness in next 2yrs…300=50% greater chance of illness in next 2yrs. </li></ul>
  • 3. Further Questions <ul><li>What was at the top of the scale and what score did this item carry? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify ONE strength of the readjustment scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify ONE weakness of the readjustment scale </li></ul><ul><li>What method was used? </li></ul>
  • 4. More answers <ul><li>Death of spouse=100 </li></ul><ul><li>Support from Rahe et al (1970)2500 naval personnel-questionnaire-sig changes +/- 6mths prior to tour of duty…doc kept check whilst on duty. 0.118 correlation for life event and illness. Poss & neg life events can be linked to stress and illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Correlational data, so only show relationship between life changes and illness, not cause and effect, may be other factors causing illness and not life events. More stringent measure needed to draw firm conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire/interview </li></ul>
  • 5. Daily Hassles <ul><li>What are daily hassles? </li></ul><ul><li>What are daily uplifts? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the two interact? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Lazarus suggest? </li></ul>
  • 6. Answers <ul><li>Minor events which arise from day-to-day living, such as caring for others, money problems/commuting, queuing etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The minor positive experiences of every day. E.g. a compliment. </li></ul><ul><li>They are thought to cancel/counteract one another. So more negative effects of illness if daily uplifts don’t occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Major life events relatively rare-more likely to suffer daily stressors. </li></ul>
  • 7. Further questions <ul><li>Delongis proposed? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify one strength </li></ul><ul><li>Identify one weakness </li></ul>
  • 8. More answers <ul><li>Daily hassles are more important than life events as stronger correlation found when tested. +59…married couples. </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting evidence from Gervais (2005) found daily hassles increased job strain & decreased job performance, however, uplifts increased performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Retrospective data=notoriously unreliable as memory can be distorted and inaccurate evidence is gained. Can be overcome by using the diary method. </li></ul>
  • 9. Workplace stressors <ul><li>Explain what is meant by workplace stressors? Give two examples. </li></ul><ul><li>What did Marmot et al (1997) aim to do? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Marmot find? How </li></ul><ul><li>What method was used? </li></ul>
  • 10. Answers <ul><li>aspects of our working environment (such as work overload or impending deadlines) that we experience as stressful, and which cause a stress reaction in our body. 1.control 2. responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>to investigate the link between control and CHD. </li></ul><ul><li>men & women in clerical and office support roles were more likely to develop CHD than admin posts. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire/correlation </li></ul>
  • 11. More questions <ul><li>What workplace stressor did Johansson investigate? </li></ul><ul><li>How did they measure this? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Johansson find? </li></ul>
  • 12. Answers <ul><li>lack of control/high attentional demands </li></ul><ul><li>adrenaline/noradrenaline levels in urine measured/mood ratings monitored/frequency of illness and absenteeism monitored. Sawmill vs more flexible working conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>sawmill group had higher levels of adrenaline/noradrenaline in urine than control group/higher negative mood & more illness. </li></ul>
  • 13. Evaluation <ul><li>Outline evaluation of the link between stress and the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  • 14. Answers <ul><li>Wealth of supporting evidence…e.g. Brady/Glass et al suggests???? </li></ul><ul><li>Extrapolation….. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness…ignores individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>Practical applications….from findings of research employers can put procedures in place to reduce the effects of work related stress and thus reduce illness associated with such stressors, for example….. </li></ul>
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