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1. Section A – Correlation Your task is to answer questions about how a piece of correlational research related to the passage below could be conducted. The trait of…
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  • 1. Section A – Correlation Your task is to answer questions about how a piece of correlational research related to the passage below could be conducted. The trait of extroversion-introversion is a central dimension of human personality. Extroverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and interested in seeking out excitement. Introverts, in contrast, tend to be more reserved, less outgoing, and less sociable. They are not necessarily loners but they tend to have smaller circles of friends and are less likely to thrive on making new social contacts. Locus of control refers to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them. Individuals with a high internal locus of control believe that events result primarily from their own behaviour and actions. Those with a high external locus of control believe that powerful others, fate, or chance primarily determine events. Those with a high internal locus of control have better control of their behaviour. You must choose one of the options (a) – (g): a. Do people who are more extroverted go out more often at the weekends? b. Do people with an external locus of control have a larger belief in star signs? c. Do people with an internal locus of control and belief that failure of exams is due to the student? d. Do older people have a worse memory for words? e. Does the number of hours you’ve been awake have an effect on your alertness? f. Are people who are more extroverted blessed with quicker reaction times? g. When students spend more time revising do they get better scores on examinations? You must use a correlational design and plan to collect at least ordinal level data. It must be a practical that could be conducted.
  • 2. Answer all the questions in Section A in relation to your practical project. State the option (a) – (g) you have chosen for your practical project: _______ 1. State an appropriate and operationalised one-tailed alternate hypothesis for your practical project. [3] 2. State an appropriate and operationalised null hypothesis for your practical project. [3] 3. Describe the method and procedure you would use to conduct your practical project. 13 marks are awarded for replicability and appropriateness and 6 for the feasibility of the design. [13+6] 4. Identify the sampling technique you will use and give one advantage of using that technique to select a representative sample in your practical project. [3] 5. Suggest one way in which you could assess the validity of one of your correlational variables. [6] 6. Describe a technique that could be used to describe your data. [3] 7. Identify and describe the rational for choosing an appropriate inferential statistical test that could be used to calculate the significance of any correlation in your practical project. [3] Total [40]
  • 3. SECTION A Question Number Expected Answer Max Mark Additional Guidance 1 State an appropriate and operationalised one-tailed alternate hypothesis for your practical project. The hypothesis should follow logically from the research question and be fully operationalised so that it is clear what is being measured and how it would be measured. It must not refer to the difference between two variables. 0 marks – no hypothesis or a hypothesis that is not a one-tailed is given. 1 mark – an appropriate statement of the research question has been framed but is not operationalised OR an operationalised statement is framed but it does not follow logically from the research question. 2 marks – an appropriate statement of the research question has been framed but it is not clearly operationalised. 3 marks – an appropriate statement of the research question has been framed and it is clearly operationalised. [3] Do not rewards a null hypothesis, a two- tailed hypothesis or any experimental hypothesis (there is a difference between…) The word significant is not required for full marks. If the answer has one of the variables fully operationalised but not the other it can be given two marks. 2 State an appropriate and operationalised null hypothesis for your practical project. The hypothesis should follow logically from the research question and be fully operationalised so that it is clear what is being measured and how it would be measured. It must not refer to the difference between two variables. 0 marks – no hypothesis or a hypothesis that is not a one-tailed is given. 1 mark – an appropriate statement of the research question has been framed but is not operationalised OR an operationalised statement is framed but it does not follow logically from the research question. 2 marks – an appropriate statement of the research question has been framed but it is not clearly operationalised. 3 marks – an appropriate statement of the research question has been framed and it is clearly operationalised. [3] Do not rewards a one or two-tailed hypothesis or any experimental hypothesis (there is a difference between…) The word significant is not required for full marks. If the answer has one of the variables fully operationalised but not the other it can be given two marks. 3 Describe the method and procedure you would use to conduct your practical project. Marks are awarded for replicability and appropriateness. There should be a clear description of the method. Details should include, where appropriate, the type of sample and the way it was selected, the allocation to groups, a description of the test or questionnaire with examples, or the observation schedule and criteria, the conditions and timing, methods of learning and testing, scorings or ratings. For replicabilityand appropriateness: 0-4 marks – The description of the sample, the way it was selected is brief and/or unclearly stated. Answers do not contain much structure or organisation and it is often difficult to understand what was done. There is little orno use of specialist terms. Examples of materials used are missing or incomplete asare details of the scoring, timing and conditions of the test. 5-8 marks – The choice of sample and sampling technique is appropriate but could be described [13+6] Do not reward a procedure that is clearly unrelated to the research question chosen and may have been learnt in order to be pigeon holed into any question. Start at the top band and move down to find the right band. It is not necessary for candidates to describe materials in full for a top band answer or to explicitly refer to ethical considerations. Do not reward if the procedure describes a
  • 4. more fully. The structure and organization of the description of the procedure is generally plausible, appropriate and fairly detailed. There is some use of specialist terms. The investigation is not fully replicable as details of materials and test conditions, including timing, are incomplete. 9-13 marks – At the top end the investigation is fully replicable. The type of sample and the way it was selected, a description of the test or questionnaire with examples, or the observation schedule and criteria, the conditions and timing, methods of learning and testing, scorings or ratings are all fully and clearly described. For the quality of the design and its feasibility: 0 marks the design is not appropriate to the research question and/or is not a correlational design, or describes an unethical procedure. 1-2 marks – the design would not result in the collection of at least ordinal dataOR it fulfils the criteria for a correlation and ordinal level data but does not logically follow from the research question or it is not practical [pragmatic]. 3-4 marks – the design should be appropriate to the research question ie is acorrelational design with the appropriate level of measurement. 5-6 marks – the design should be appropriate to the research question and is pragmatic and ethical. type of experiment. No marks for an unethical procedure, experimental design or if it doesn’t collect at least ordinal data. The bottom band may be used for answers where the design is unclear. 4 Identify the sampling technique you will use and give one advantage of using that technique to select a representative sample in your practical project. Marks are awarded for both identification of the correct technique used and linking the technique used to the candidate’s practical project. 0 marks – incorrect or inappropriate sampling technique is identified. 1 mark – appropriate sampling technique is identified which fits with procedure described. 2 marks – appropriate sampling technique is identified and a generic advantage of using that technique is offered. Answer not in the context of this practical project. 3 marks – appropriate sampling technique identified and an advantage of using the technique in the context of this practical is offered. [3] No marks if the sampling technique identified is different from that discussed in the procedure. 1 mark for identification only even if the technique is described in detail. Max if not contextualised to this practical: two marks. 5 Suggest one way in which you could assess the validity of one of your correlational variables. Validity could include reference to face validity, external validity, internal validity and control over variables and/or may include ecological validity. Candidates must refer to assessing or checking the validity of a correlational variable, not improving the validity. 0 marks – no reference to validity or reference to improving the validity of the correlational variables. 1-2 marks – incomplete understanding of assessing the validity of a correlational variable. 3-4 marks – concept of validity in relation to assessment is understood but not fully explained or one point fully explained in this context. 5-6 marks – concept of assessing the validity of a correlational variable is explained well in relation to this practical. This could refer to using a different method of collect the data to assess the validity of one of the correlational variables. [6] Do not reward a response that is unrelated to validity. Do not reward a response that is unrelated to the context of this practical. Do not reward a response that refers to improving the validity of a correlational variable. Maximum of 3 marks if the candidate only discusses ecological validity. 6 Describe a technique that could be used to describe your data. Marks are awarded for both identification of a correct technique and description of how it could [3] Do not reward if answer is unrelated to descriptive statistics.
  • 5. describe the data. Most common answers will refer to the use of a scatter graph / scatter gram. 0 marks – incorrect or inappropriate descriptive technique is described. 1 mark – technique is simply identified but little elaboration as to how it would be used to describe the data. 2 marks – technique is identified and candidate elaborates on how points will be plotted to describe patterns of data – looking at a positive or negative slope of points plotted or looking at the spread of the data points. Answer not in the context of this practical project. 3 marks – technique is identified, elaborated on and in the context of this practical project. Do not reward if the descriptive method is inappropriate to a correlation (bar chat / pie chart) 7 Identify and describe the rational for choosing an appropriate inferential statistical test that could be used to calculate the significance of any correlation in your practical project. Marks are awarded for both identification of the appropriate statistical test and describing the rational behind the choice. 0 marks – inappropriate or incorrect inferential statistical test chosen. 1 mark – appropriate statistical test is identified but no or little rational as to why it would be chosen. 2 marks – appropriate statistical test is identified and correct rational is given as to why it was selected but is not framed in the context of this practical project. 3 marks – appropriate statistical test is identified and correct rational is given and is framed in the context of this practical project. [3] Do not reward if answer is unrelated to inferential statistical testing. No marks if inappropriate statistical test is identified. No marks if data collected are not at least ordinal. Candidate does not have to comment on parametric / non-parametric testing. If data collected is interval/ratio and ordinal test is chosen award maximum of 2 marks. Rational will usually relate to the design selected and the level of data collected.
  • 6. Answer all the questions in Section A in relation to your practical project. State the option (a) – (g) you have chosen for your practical project: _______ 1. State an appropriate and operationalised two-tailed alternate hypothesis for your practical project. [3] 2. State an appropriate and operationalised null hypothesis for your practical project. [3] 3. Describe the sample that you will use for this practical project. [3] 4. Describe one disadvantage of using this group of participants for your practical project. [3] 5. Outline how you would operationalise one of your variables. [3] 6. Discuss the validity of one of your variables. [6] 7. Suggest one way in which you could improve the reliability of one of your variables. [6] 8. What would it mean if you calculated that there was a correlational coefficient of 0.8 between your two variables? [3] 9. If a correlation was found to be significant at the 5% level of significance (p<0.05) what does this mean and what effect would this have on conclusions made in relation to your hypotheses? [3+3] 10.Describe why you cannot infer any cause and effect from the results of your practical project. [4] Total [40]
  • 7. SECTION A Question Number Expected Answer Max Mark Additional Guidance 1 State an appropriate and operationalisedtwo-tailed alternate hypothesis for your practical project. The hypothesis should follow logically from the research question and be fully operationalised so that it is clear what is being measured and how it would be measured. It must not refer to the difference between two variables. 0 marks – no hypothesis or a hypothesis that is not a two-tailed is given. 1 mark – an appropriate statement of the research question has been framed but is not operationalised OR an operationalised statement is framed but it does not follow logically from the research question. 2 marks – an appropriate statement of the research question has been framed but it is not clearly operationalised. 3 marks – an appropriate statement of the research question has been framed and it is clearly operationalised. [3] Do not rewards a null hypothesis, a one- tailed hypothesis or any experimental hypothesis (there is a difference between…) The word significant is not required for full marks. If the answer has one of the variables fully operationalised but not the other it can be given two marks. 2 State an appropriate and operationalised null hypothesis for your practical project. The hypothesis should follow logically from the research question and be fully operationalised so that it is clear what is being measured and how it would be measured. It must not refer to the difference between two variables. 0 marks – no hypothesis or a hypothesis that is not a one-tailed is given. 1 mark – an appropriate statement of the research question has been framed but is not operationalised OR an operationalised statement is framed but it does not follow logically from the research question. 2 marks – an appropriate statement of the research question has been framed but it is not clearly operationalised. 3 marks – an appropriate statement of the research question has been framed and it is clearly operationalised. [3] Do not rewards a one or two-tailed hypothesis or any experimental hypothesis (there is a difference between…) The word significant is not required for full marks. If the answer has one of the variables fully operationalised but not the other it can be given two marks. 3 Describe the sample that you will use for this practical project. Candidates will be expected to describe at least three features of the sample. Answers could refer to age, number, location acquired from, demographic, gender, race etc. Reference maybe made to the sampling technique but must be supported with explicit features of the sample used. 0 marks – no features of the sample given or sampling technique described. 1 mark – one feature of the sample is given OR two given in poor detail. 2 marks – two features of the sample are given OR two or three features are given but the sample described is not feasible. 3 marks – three or more features of the sample are given in detail, framed in the context of this practical and are feasible to acquire. [3] Do not reward if the sampling technique is described with no reference to the sample of participants used. If sample is not feasible then maximum of 2 marks. 4 Describe one disadvantage of using this group of participants for your practical project. [3] Do not reward if the sampling technique is
  • 8. Answers must focus on the sample of participants collected NOT the sampling technique used. Candidates must state why it is a disadvantage not merely identifies the disadvantage. 0 marks – inappropriate answer reflecting on the sampling technique or an advantage is given. 1 mark – one disadvantage of using the sample is identified but little elaboration of why it is a disadvantage. 2 marks – one disadvantage of using the sample is identified and elaborated on OR one disadvantage is identified and framed in the context of this practical. 3 marks – one advantage is identified, elaborated on as to why it is a disadvantage and framed in the context of this practical project. evaluated with no reference to the sample of participants used. If the disadvantage is only identified maximum of 2 marks if appropriately contextualised to the practical project. 5 Outline how you would operationalise one of your variables. It should be clear how the candidate intends to fully operationalise one of the correlational variables including, if appropriate, a description of the test or questionnaire with examples, or the observation schedule (coding scheme), the timings, methods of measurement or scoring methods employed. 0 marks–no reference to how the candidate would operationalise one of their variables OR generic answer about what operationalising variables refers to. 1 mark – brief and incomplete description of how the candidate would operationalise one of their variables. 2 marks – concept of operationalising variables is clear but the variable is not completely operationalised. Lack of detail in how the candidate would operationalise the variable. 3 marks – one of the variables is completely operationalised in detail and could be replicated. [3] Either of the correlational variables may be selected. Candidates are expected to demonstrate their understanding of the term ‘operationalise’. Do not reward a response that is not explicitly related to this practical. Could you replicate the method used following the description of operationalising the variable? If confused no more than 2 marks to be awarded. 6 Discuss the validity of one of your variables. Validity could include reference to face validity, external validity, internal validity and control over variables and/or may include ecological validity. Candidates may refer to improving, assessing or checking the validity of a correlational variable. This could refer to using a different method of collect the data to assess the validity of one of the correlational variables, appropriately operationalising variables, demand characteristics, individual differences. 0 marks – no reference to validity or reference to improving the validity of the correlational variables. 1-2 marks – incomplete understanding of validity of a correlational variable. 3-4 marks – concept of validity in is understood but not fully explained or one po
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