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1. Corfe Hills School AS Psychology Research Methods Observation OCR AS Core Studies & Research Module Work book Name …………………………………... 1 2.…
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  • 1. Corfe Hills School AS Psychology Research Methods Observation OCR AS Core Studies & Research Module Work book Name …………………………………... 1
  • 2. Observation Methods in Psychological Research When you decide to carry out psychological research one of the most difficult tasks will be to decide which research method to use. 1. Why is it a problem for psychologists to decide which research method they should use? 2. What are the advantages in choosing the observation method? 3. What are the disadvantages of choosing the observation method? 4 a. Give examples of data that might be collected in an observation study on happiness which is quantitative: b) How might you collect qualitative data on happiness? 2
  • 3. 5. Give examples of how psychologists might operationalise the variable of happiness: 6. Give brief examples of different types of data collected through observation in the studies of Milgam, Piliavin, Reicher and Haslam and Rosenhan. Study Qualitative Quantitative Milgram Reicher & Haslam Piliavin Rosenhan Observations – there are different types of observation studies: 7. Investigate these terms and define with example: a) Naturalistic observations 3
  • 4. b) Participant observations c) Disclosed observations d) Undisclosed observations 8. Explain what is meant by observer bias? Give an example of a study which might have been affected by observer bias. 9. How can reliability be maximised when an observation is conducted? 10. What ethical issues arise when devising a naturalistic observation? Explain what steps should be taken in order to ensure observations are ethical: 4
  • 5. 11. A pilot study has indicated that boys and girls play differently. Boys have been shown to engage more in rough and tumble play (e.g. pushing, hitting) and girls have been show to engage in more co-operative play (e.g. clapping games, skipping games). A psychologist wished to study the differences between boys and girls play in primary schools. She asked the head teachers of several schools for permission to observe children playing. She observed the children from a window and recorded the ways in which boys and girls were playing. The results of the observations are presented in Table 1 below: Table 1: Frequency of types of play observed in boys and girls Types of play Boys Girls Pushing 85 45 Hitting 115 70 Clapping Games 3 132 Skipping Games 0 127 Running 189 176 a) Explain how a naturalist observation is different from a field experiment b) Write an appropriate hypothesis for this study c) What is a pilot study d) Explain the terms reliability in context of this study 5
  • 6. e) Explain two factors that might have affected the validity of this study f) Identify a suitable type of graph or chart that could be used to illustrate the data in Table 1 and explain why this would be appropriate. Draw the graph or chart (if you do this on the computer then cut and paste it into your work book) g) Describe the conclusions that could be drawn from the data in Table 1. h) Identify two ethical issues associated with this study and for each ethical issue identified explain how this issue could be deal with. 6
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