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1. Question: Outline Freud’s case study of Little Hans (1909) <br />Task Instruction:<br /><ul><li>Tick the boxes next to the methods which…
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  • 1. Question: Outline Freud’s case study of Little Hans (1909) <br />Task Instruction:<br /><ul><li>Tick the boxes next to the methods which could be used to describe Freud’s case study of Little Hans (A)
  • 2. State whether the points are description or analyse points (B)
  • 3. Match up the descriptions to the corresponding analysis – draw lines between them (B)</li></ul>A<br />Observations Experiment Dream Analysis Interviews Self-report data Free-association Symbol analysis Field –experimentQuestionnaireCorrelational Design Slips of the tongue<br />B<br />PointDescription or Analysis Hans dreamt of wiping children’s bottomsHans wished to push his sisters head under the water when she had a bath, he wanted his mother to himself and feared any more babies coming along He was stuck in the anal phase, and enjoyed having his own bottom wiped – and so got pleasure from the anal stage Hans dreamt of giraffes, a big one and a crumpled one, the big one called out because he took the crumpled one away from it. Then it stopped calling out and he sat on the crumpled oneHe wanted his father to go away and he wanted his mother to himself, he enjoyed the attention Hans saw a white horse collapse and die in the streetThis reminded Hans he was told off for playing with his widdler, evidence of castration fear, that his father would take his penis awayHe enjoyed getting into bed with his parents, but his father often objected, his father resented his mother being taken away. The long neck was representative of a large penis. Representative of the phallic stage. Hans dreamt that a plumber took off his own penis and replaced it with a big pipeHans saw a girl being told not to touch a horse otherwise it would bite her finger offEvidence of repression of desires into his unconscious which can only be accessed through dreamsHans was obsessed with his widdler and his mother had threatened to cut it off, he dreamt of wiping children’s bottoms – he denied this interestThe black around the eyes and mussel was representative of all adult men, his father and his fear and hatred for him Hans fantasised when playing with dolls that he was married to his mother with children, he was the father and his father was the grandfatherRepresentative of resolution of the Oedipus complex as he had successfully become his father and taken his place – become a man <br />Question: Define Case studies as used in psychology<br />Task: Complete the sentences <br />Case studies involve studying ...<br />Many research methods are used including ...<br />Case histories involve gathering ...<br />Triangulation involves ...<br />Question: Evaluate case studies as a method used in psychology<br />Task: Identify whether the following statements would be worth a mark – explain why <br />StatementMark?ReasonCase studies only collect qualitative data and so cannot be accurately analysedThey can be subjective and open to interpretation as the researcher may only attend to relevant dataThey are hard to generalise as they are conducted on small groups or one person and so are not reflective of general behaviourThey use a variety of methods and so are not reliable They collect a vast amount of rich valid data directly from the individual They are conducted in the participants natural environment and so are more accurate to naturalistic behaviour They cannot be replicated as they are unique to that individual and situationThey produce data which only suggests relationships and not causal factorsThey can ensure all extraneous variables are controlled increasing reliability They can be used to study unique phenomenon where data may not be gathered by any other means They can help the patient to solve particular issues in their lives <br />Question: Define Freud’s personality theory <br />Task: <br /><ul><li>Match the following definitions – be aware that the level of consciousness can be multiple for some parts of the personality. Draw a pathway linking the concepts
  • 4. Briefly explain the principles and components – give examples of behaviours if this is easier </li></ul>Definition of consciousnessMaterial just beneath the surface of awarenessContact with the outside worldDifficult to retrieve material – well below the surface Level of consciousnessConsciousUnconsciousPreconsciousPart of personalityIdEgoSuperegoPrincipleRealityMorality PleasureComponentSocialBiologicalPsychologicalDevelopmentDevelopBorn with Develop<br />Morality principlePleasure principleReality principleBiological componentPsychological component Social component <br />Question: Define Freud’s theory of psychosexual development<br />Task: <br /><ul><li>Complete these statements about each stage
  • 5. Highlight key terms </li></ul>Oral stage<br />The oral stage lasts from around ________ to _______<br />The ___________ is the focus of pleasure<br />If nursing stops too soon the child has been _______indulged, the nursing will stop __________ and the adult will be __________________________________________<br />If the child is nursed for too long the child has been _______indulged, the nursing will stop __________ and the adult will be __________________________________________<br />Anal stage<br />The anal stage lasts from around ________ to _______<br />The ___________ is the focus of pleasure due to toilet training<br />If parents are too lenient and the child gets pleasure from _________________________, the adult will form a _____________________character and will become _____________ __________________________________________________________________________<br />If the child refuses to go, and gets pleasure from _______________________________and that is not overcome the adult will form a _______________ ___________character and will become _____________ __________________ ______________________________ ________________________________________________________________________<br />Phallic stage <br />The anal stage lasts from around ________ to _______<br />The ___________ is the focus of pleasure <br />Boys experience the _________________ complex, girls experience the ____________ complex. Through this they adopt their _________________ behaviour by ___________ the behaviour of their ____________________ parent. If they become fixated at this stage they will experience the following problems as an adult: _____________________________<br />______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Latency Period<br />The latency period begins when the child completes the ___________________________<br />And ends when the child hits ______________________<br />There is no_________________________________ in this period. <br />It is a period of ___________________<br />Children form ____________________________________________________________<br />Genital stage<br />The genital stage starts at _____________<br />The libido focuses on ____________________<br />___________________________________ friendships are formed <br />If energy is taken up by unresolved prior stages then there is not enough energy to form _________________________ relationships. <br />Define the term libido<br />________________________________________________________________________<br />Question: Define Freud’s theory of gender development <br />Task: Identify what is happening for boys and girls for each of these issues – if they are the same this is indicated. If this is not clarified for girls it is left blank.<br />IssueBoysGirlsName of the complexNatural love for and wishing to desireLibido focused on In the ________ stage of developmentStand in the way of this desireThey feel aggression towards theAnxiety and fear caused by Find out that Fear that / envy that What is stronger than the fear The desire is They therefore wish to Identify with and become like Can it be completely resolved?Leads to successful adoption of Develops the _________The next stage of development is the <br />Question: Evaluate Freud’s theories<br />Task: <br /><ul><li>Mark the two answers - highlight mark worthy points in different colours
  • 6. Identify strengths and weaknesses separately
  • 7. What grade would you give them if the question was out of 10? (calculate the percentage)
  • 8. How can you get your answers to top standards – think of two top tips</li></ul>Answer A<br />Freud was biased in his interpretations and so they could not be generalised to the rest of the population. His methods were unique but unscientific and so not reliable. The Oedipus complex does not work in certain situations – such as one parent families. His interpretations are subjective, he only found what he wanted to find. His methods have led to the development of the ‘talking cure’ and psychiatry at large. He was the first to come up with the idea of the conscious and unconscious and so led the field in psychology. His case studies gave reliable data because he got rich in-depth data directly from his participants, and so had a reliable source. <br />MarkPercentageGradeAdditional points<br />Answer B <br />Freud was the first to try to explain the conscious and unconscious. His techniques were developed for the purpose and therefore were completely unique, and suited the purpose. He accessed areas of the mind that had never been accessible before this; specifically the unconscious which he thought was the largest part of the mind. By doing his however his methods were unscientific, could not be tested or measured by any other means or repeated and therefore lacked reliability. <br />He gathered his material from people from the same social background as him in middle class Vienna, this means that his theories were biased towards this population, and therefore are hard to generalise to the wider population. Also most of his theories focused on the sexual drive – the libido, as his participants did not struggle to find food and water or shelter – the other instincts he identified. <br />Subjectivity is an issue as he often looked for support for his theories in his subject, for example he looked for evidence of the Oedipus complex in Little Hans and only selected relevant data to report. He also often drew from his own experiences, and had to interpret the majority of his qualitative data subjectively. This meant that his work was often biased to his own interpretations. However he was not always subjective, as he admitted that dreams can also be made up of the day’s events and may not always be symbols of unconscious desires. <br />There is further evidence to support his theory that parental relationships have an effect on later adult personalities; Massie and Szeinberg (2002) found that mental health problems were associated with traumatic childhood events. There is further support for the anal personality such as Maltby and Price (1999) who found that anality ratings and political conservatism had a positive correlation, so anality may cause conservative political views. <br />However many of Freud’s ideas and methods have been rejected, for example Golombok (2000) found no evidence for unsuccessful resolution of Oedipus complex due to the lack if a same sex parent. There are also alternative explanations for development including Bowlby’s theory of attachment to a parent which would explain the desire to ‘possess’ the mother as something other than sexual.<br />MarkPercentageGradeAdditional points<br />Question: Evaluate Freud’s case study of Little Hans <br />Task: Expand on the following points to make them specific to this case study – ensure you use key terms, highlight these once you are finished.<br />PointFor HansValid data Led to development of psychoanalysis Subjective interpretationParents knowledge of Freud Other explanations Not scientific<br />Question: Outline Axline’s case study of Dibs (1963)<br />Task Instruction:<br /><ul><li>Tick the boxes next to the methods which could be used to describe Axline’s case study of Dibs (A)
  • 9. State whether the points are description or analyse points (B)
  • 10. Match up the descriptions to the corresponding analysis – draw lines between them (B)
  • 11. Add any further analysis or description points onto the bottom of the list and identify which they are </li></ul>A<br />Observations Experiment Dream Analysis Interviews Self-report data Play-TherapySymbol analysis Field –experimentQuestionnaireCorrelational Design Slips of the tongue<br />B<br />PointDescription or Analysis Dibs was a gifted child who could read and write easily and understand complex concepts such as the colour wheel Dibs hated leaving school or play therapy and did not wish to return home He played with a dolls house and locked all of the windows and doors and drew a lock on the front door Dibs buried a doll he called ‘papa’ in the sand and often hid the soldier he referred to as his father away during play He displaced the anger for his parents onto other childrenHe had a difficult relationship with his parents and wanted his father to go away He had a over-controlling superego and his ego could not balance the demands of his id and superego His father used to lock him in his room which explained this dislike of locked rooms and wallsHis birth was an accident and had ruined his mothers career and annoyed her husbandHe had been put under a lot of pressure to succeed and tested regularly since the age of two – he was resisting this<br />Question: Evaluate Axline’s case study of Dibs (1963)<br />Task: Which of the following points would get marks for this question – explain why <br />StatementMark?ReasonThe therapy was a success and Dibs ‘unlocked’ his emotions and learnt to socialise normally It is subjective and open to interpretation as the researcher may only attend to relevant dataThe study is hard to generalise as it is conducted on one person and so is not reflective of general behaviourAxline used a variety of methods to obtain her data, increasing the reliability of the data Case studies collect a vast amount of rich valid data directly from the individual The environment was natural for Dibs and so he behaved as he would normally giving good ecological validity It cannot be replicated as it is unique to that individual and situationIt has good ethics as Dibs’ identity was kept secret and he was not put under any harm or distress – in fact he was helpedThe researcher could not be sure it was the play therapy as she did not control all variables<br />Question: Outline Correlational designs as used in Psychology<br />Task: Complete the following statements <br />Data for correlational designs id usually gathered via ______________________________<br />Correlational designs test for a ______________ between two sets of _________<br />The data collected falls into one of the following categories for levels of measurement<br />___________________ which is __________________________________<br />___________________ which is __________________________________<br />___________________ which is __________________________________<br />Data comes from ______ participant providing _______ set s of data<br />It is not suggested that ____________________________ but that there is a ___________ between the sets of data <br />Both the _______ and the _________ are measured <br />A positive correlation is when _______________________________________________<br />A negative correlation is when _______________________________________________<br />A way of testing the strength of the correlation is to use ___________________________<br />This gives a number which is between ______ and __________<br />It is an example of an _____________________________________<br />The closer the result is to either _______ or _______ the more ___________________ the result, and it can be concluded that there is a ____________________ between the factors.<br />Question: Evaluate the use of correlational designs in Psychology<br />Task: Expand on the following points to make them mark worthy <br />Little manipulation of variablesThey can show ... which willNo ... is proven, which means you will have to Operationalisation of variables<br />Question: Outline Freud’s research methods<br />Task: <br /><ul><li>Identify which techniques Freud used
  • 12. Expand on these to explain them </li></ul>TechniqueUsed or not?Observations Experiment Dream Analysis Interviews Self-report data Free-association Symbol analysis Field –experimentQuestionnaireCorrelational Design Slips of the tongueCase studies <br />TechniqueExplanation (how did he use them?)<br />Question: Evaluate Freud’s research methods <br />Task: <br /><ul><li>Identify evaluation points which are specific to Freud’s methods (F), those which could be used for any case study – but made applicable to Freud (C) and those which should not be used (N)
  • 13. Choose 4 of the points you believe are specific to Freud, and write out as you would use it to answer this question in an exam</li></ul>PointF (Freud), C (Any case study), N (Not applicable)Can be the only way of studying particular phenomenon Can be repeated due to the strict controls usedNot measurable as testing unique conceptsUnique methods devised to test new concepts Not scientific and so cannot be repeated Can be used to treat patients as well as record data Special means to uncover the otherwise inaccessible Hard to generalise Done in a participants natural surroundings Can be subjective as the analyst has to do much interpretationOnly gather qualitative data Data can be confirmed due to triangulation <br />IssueFull explanation<br />
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