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2. <ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>How doe we remember? </li></ul><ul><li>Different models of memory…
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  • 2. <ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>How doe we remember? </li></ul><ul><li>Different models of memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetting </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we forget? </li></ul><ul><li>Different explanations of forgetting </li></ul><ul><li>Eye Witness Testimony </li></ul><ul><li>Are eye witness testimonies reliable? </li></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>In psychology, memory is an individual’s ability to store , retain , </li></ul><ul><li>& recall information . </li></ul>What is memory?
  • 4. <ul><li>There are three main components/processes of memory that you need to be familiar with </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding - the process by which sensory information is translated so that it can be stored </li></ul><ul><li>Duration – How long the information is stored </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity – How much information can be stored </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Atkinson & Shiffrin’s </li></ul><ul><li>Multistore Model of Memory (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>There are three main components of the model: </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory memory </li></ul><ul><li>2. Short term memory </li></ul><ul><li>3. Long term memory </li></ul>
  • 6. Sensory Memory Short Term Memory Long Term Memory Decay Decay .......... Interference .......... Decay .......... Retrieval Failure Attention Rehearsal Retrieval Rehearsal
  • 7. <ul><li>Info from our senses are stored in the sensory store for a fraction of a second </li></ul><ul><li>If a person pays attention to the info it will be encoded and move to the stm store </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding – In the form it was </li></ul><ul><li>received </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity – All sensory </li></ul><ul><li>experience </li></ul><ul><li>Duration – Approx half a </li></ul><ul><li>second </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>When you go to the next page, you will be presented with a line of letters across the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Memorise as many of the letters as you can but do not write anything until the word NOW appears. </li></ul><ul><li>When you see the word NOW appear on the screen, write down on your paper as many of the letters as you can remember, in the same order as they were presented . </li></ul>
  • 9. G C E B T E C G C S E G N V Q A S NOW
  • 12. <ul><li>You probably did better this time - Answers below. GCE BTEC GCSE GNVQ AS Why might this be? – (apart from having seen the stimulus material twice </li></ul><ul><li>Miller (1956) : the STM can hold ‘the magic number seven, plus or minus two’ </li></ul><ul><li>On average, the capacity of STM is between 5 and 9 items of information </li></ul><ul><li>But when items are grouped together (chunking) to make meaningful items more items can be remembered </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>… if you didn’t rehearse it? </li></ul><ul><li>The duration for which STM can retain info is temporary – a very short time </li></ul>
  • 14. <ul><li>This next experiment was first carried out by married couple Peterson & Peterson (1959) </li></ul><ul><li>Got students to recall combinations of 3 letters ( trigrams ), after longer and longer intervals. </li></ul><ul><li>During the intervals, students were prevented from rehearsing by a counting task! </li></ul><ul><li>On the next screen, you will see a trigram for a few seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>A 3-digit number will then appear in its place. When this happens, start counting backwards in 3’s from the number until you are told to stop. </li></ul><ul><li>Pens down…. ready? </li></ul>
  • 15. V J P 303
  • 16. X G A 497
  • 17. K Z Y 799
  • 18. <ul><li>Their findings suggest that our STM fades in under a half a minute if we are not rehearsing it: </li></ul>After 18secs, fewer than 10% recalled correctly. After only 3secs, 80% recalled correctly. Recall got progressively worse as the delay grew longer!
  • 19. <ul><li>If info in the sensory store is paid attention to moves to the STM store </li></ul><ul><li>All other sensory info is lost </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding – Tends to be auditory </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity - 7 bits of info + or – 2, but chunking info can increase capacity </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. B B C M P BBC MP </li></ul><ul><li>Duration – Approx 30 seconds unless rehearsed </li></ul><ul><li>If info in STM is rehearsed e.g. telephone no. can transfer into long term memory </li></ul>
  • 20. <ul><li>Info may transfer from STM to LTM if rehearsed </li></ul><ul><li>Much more difficult to study LTM </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding – Mainly semantic based on meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity – Unlimited </li></ul><ul><li>Duration – Can be from a few minutes to a lifetime </li></ul>
  • 21. <ul><li>+ Research supports the key assumptions of the MSM </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Peterson and Peterson experiment shows memory only stays in STM for a limited period of time </li></ul><ul><li>+ The notion of a different STM and LTM is supported by patients with brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Clive Wearing is still able to remember something from LTM but has not STM </li></ul>
  • 22. <ul><li>- The studies providing evidence for the MSM are based upon laboratory experiments which lack ecological validity (not true to life) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Peterson and Peterson participants learnt nonsense words </li></ul><ul><li>- Provides a description of memory but cant explain how it works </li></ul><ul><li>- Not all memory that enters LTM has been rehearsed </li></ul>
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