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1. Explanations of Institutional Aggression <ul><li>Prisons </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Settings…
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  • 1. Explanations of Institutional Aggression <ul><li>Prisons </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Settings </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare Settings </li></ul>
  • 2. Prisons <ul><li>The Guardian in 2003 highlighted abuse of inmates in Wormwood Scrubs. </li></ul><ul><li>Beatings, mock executions, death threats, choking, racist abuse. </li></ul>
  • 3. Educational Settings <ul><li>Both teachers and students victims of rape, armed robbery, aggravated assault and verbal threat. </li></ul><ul><li>School shootings – Columbine, Dunblane, Germany. </li></ul>
  • 4. Healthcare Settings <ul><li>Carers and mental health nurses most at risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients also easy targets for killers such as Beverley Allitt and Harold Shipman. </li></ul>
  • 5. EXPLANATIONS <ul><li>De-individuation - anonymity </li></ul><ul><li>Identification with a role - uniform </li></ul><ul><li>Situational variables – overcrowding, ‘us and them’ norms </li></ul>
  • 6. Examples of institutional aggression in prisons <ul><li>Zimbardo (1973) – Stanford prison experiment / Abu Ghraib </li></ul><ul><li>Lockwood (1980) – 2/10 prisoners sexually assaulted. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both victim and assailant ‘heterosexual’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual assaults used as degradation and punishment </li></ul></ul>In prison, rape is about social control, not sexual gratification and does not count towards sexual identity.
  • 7. Examples of institutional aggression in educational settings A prisoner is tortured by guards in Abu Ghraib. A ‘pledge’ takes part in initiation into an American college fraternity.
  • 8. Educational settings cont… <ul><li>Fraternities and sororities were established as support networks for U.S. college undergraduates. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Hazing’ - ritualistic harassment / abuse of an individual or group involving burning, branding, kidnapping, sexual abuse to prove their ‘worth’. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuwer (1990) hazing contributed to death and serious physical injury including paralysis and is now illegal in most states. </li></ul>Use your psychological knowledge to explain this phenomenon.
  • 9. <ul><li>Martin & Hummer (1989) studied sexual assault in fraternities. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered that sexual violence against women was actively encouraged. </li></ul><ul><li>Postal questionnaires were sent to sororities – only 28% response rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Half respondents had experienced sexual coercion, 24% victims of attempted rape, 17% victims of full rape. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapes had occurred in frat houses or frat functions. </li></ul>Why was the response rate so low? Why is deindividuation NOT a good explanation for this?
  • 10. Ecological Explanation <ul><li>Blyth (1980) gave questionnaires to 13 yr old students to assess perception of anonymity and danger levels within school. </li></ul><ul><li>34% of sample had been victims of bullying. </li></ul><ul><li>More of these children were at junior high, where they would be the youngest in large, crowded institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer children at elementary school (where they were the eldest) felt such isolation and fear. </li></ul>Explain the significance of hierarchy from different psychological approaches.
  • 11. Situational variables explained Matthews et al (1979) Crowding Aggression As crowding increases, so does aggression, but only up to a point. After this, further increases in crowding lead to decreases in aggression.
  • 12. Examples of institutional aggression in healthcare settings. <ul><li>Most commonly associated with psychiatric units. </li></ul><ul><li>Biological, social and environmental influences. </li></ul><ul><li>Rosenhan (1973) ‘On Being Sane in Insane Places’ </li></ul>Research real life examples of institutional aggression in educational and healthcare settings and apply the following explanations accordingly: Deindividuation, identification, situational variables.
  • Example Class One

    Jul 23, 2017
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