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1. Short-Term Memory (STM) 2. What do you need to know about STM? <ul><li>You need to know it's: </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding - How…
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  • 1. Short-Term Memory (STM)
  • 2. What do you need to know about STM? <ul><li>You need to know it's: </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding - How sensory input is represented by the memory system. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity - How much information can be stored </li></ul><ul><li>Duration - How long the information can be held in storage </li></ul>STM is a temporary place for storing information received through the senses where it receives little processing .
  • 3. Encoding in STM <ul><li>Information arrives in sensory memory in it's original form (eg sound or vision). </li></ul><ul><li>This information needs to be encoded in a form that STM can deal with. </li></ul>Example… Imagine you needed to remember to buy a Doughnut at the Supermarket
  • 4. You could encode the information visually <ul><li>Think of an image of a doughnut… </li></ul>or
  • 5. You could encode the information Acoustically <ul><li>Repeating Doughnut over and over (doughnut, doughnut, doughnut..) </li></ul>
  • 6. You could encode the information Semantically (by meaning) <ul><li>Applying some pre-existing knowledge of Doughnuts to the fact you need to remember to buy them </li></ul><ul><li>ie Homer Simpson’s </li></ul><ul><li>favourite food!! </li></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>Since memory processes are often unconscious, people cannot accurately report what type of encoding they use. </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution error studies help to examine coding in both STM and LTM. </li></ul><ul><li>These involve participants confusing one item in a memory list with another (either because they sound similar or have a similar meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Baddeley (1966) is an example of this..... </li></ul>
  • 8. Conrad (1964) <ul><li>Conrad (1964) presented participants with a visual list of six consonants (eg. HBRTFS) that they then had to write down. </li></ul><ul><li>Recall errors were mainly related to a letter's sound, not it's visual appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, B was often mistaken for V, but F was hardly ever mistaken for E. </li></ul><ul><li>These acoustic confusion errors suggest that: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The visually presented information must have been encoded acoustically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>STM is primarily encoded on the basis of sound. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 9. Capacity of STM <ul><li>STM has a limited capacity, it can only hold a small amount of information before it's forgotten. </li></ul><ul><li>We test the capacity of STM by using a </li></ul><ul><li>Serial digit span study . </li></ul><ul><li>Participants are presented with an increasingly long sequence of digits that they have to report back in order (eg. 26478, 968423, 2975841 etc). When they fail on 50% of the trials, they've reached their digit span capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>This was demonstrated by Jacobs (1887)........ </li></ul>
  • 10. Duration of STM <ul><li>Peterson and Peterson (1959) investigated the duration of STM with the trigram experiment. There procedure was as follows.... </li></ul><ul><li>1. Asking subjects to remember a single nonsense syllable of three consonants (a trigram of letters such as FJT or KPD) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Giving them an interpolated task (distractor task) to stop them rehearsing the trigram (such as counting backwards in threes from one hundred). </li></ul><ul><li>3. Testing their recall after 3,6,9,12,15,or 18 seconds (recall had to be perfect and in the correct order to count). </li></ul>
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