Slides

PsychExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

Description
1. AS PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING APPROACH Unit Two WORK BOOKLET NAME……………………………………………………………………… “Give me a dozen healthy…
Categories
Published
of 33
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  • 1. AS PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING APPROACH Unit Two WORK BOOKLET NAME……………………………………………………………………… “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.” John B. Watson (1919) What claim is Watson making about human nature? 1
  • 2. What you need to know for the Learning Approach; - what the learning approach incorporates – assumptions and KEY TERMS - Methodology – observations, including participant, non-participant, overt, covert and naturalistic. Laboratory experiments, human and animal (ethical issues for both) - Content o Classical conditioning o Operant conditioning o One treatment – token economy o Social learning theory o Gender development - Studies – Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) and Watson and Rayner (1920) (remember to use as EVIDENCE) - Key issue – Is there an increase of female violence related to changing role models? - Evidence of practical You must be able to evaluate. Here are a few reminders of how you can develop your evaluative skills: • Consider other research that supports or goes against the theory/study you are evaluating. • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the research methods used in the study? • Was the research carried out ethically? • Does the study/theory have general application i.e. does it help explain things in everyday life? • Does it explain the subject matter in a more understandable/logical/applicable way compared to other theories? When you are asked to evaluate, always ask yourself these questions. Being able to evaluate psychological studies and theories is critical to your exam success. 2
  • 3. ASSUMPTIONS 1. The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ experienced shapes people. 2. Behaviour is shaped by _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. This means receiving feedback from an action that is acceptable or desirable, as encouragement to repeat the act. 3. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ can also lead to shaping behaviour. If people are punished for behaviour they are less likely to repeat it – unless that is the only attention they are receiving. KEY TERMINOLOGY Define the following key terms for the Learning Approach Classical conditioning Extinction Spontaneous recovery Operant conditioning Positive and negative reinforcement Punishment 3
  • 4. Primary and secondary reinforcement Social Learning Imitation Modelling Observation Vicarious reinforcement Stimulus Response 4
  • 5. METHODOLOGY Observations Observation as a research method involves the data being gathered by observing others. An observation does not involve the manipulation of the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ variable. What are structured observations? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. What are naturalistic observations? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. What are non-participant observations? When are they used? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. What are participant observations? When are they used? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
  • 6. Observations can be OVERT or COVERT. Define each and highlight the differences between them. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Observations usually include T _ _ _ _ _ _ _. This can produce _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ data, whereas if observations include writing down quotes or telling a story of what is happening, this is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ data. Evaluate ALL the different forms of observations as a research method Strengths Weaknesses 6
  • 7. 7
  • 8. Laboratory experiments Describe laboratory experiments (include at least 6 points) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
  • 9. Evaluate Laboratory experiments Strengths Weaknesses 9
  • 10. Evaluate the use of animals in laboratory experiments Strengths Weaknesses 10
  • 11. RECAP ETHICS ETHICS – set by the British Psychological Society Using the table below define the 6 ethical guidelines used Ethical guideline Definition Consent Deception Right to withdraw Debriefing Competence Fully informed consent 11
  • 12. What ethical guidelines have to be adhered to when using animals in research? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. What statistical test is used for Provide an overview of the test. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
  • 13. CONTENT 1. Classical conditioning - ASSOCIATION What is stimulus-response learning? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… How did Pavlov carry out his experiments? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Pavlovs dogs 13
  • 14. Key terminology for classical conditioning Neutral stimulus (NS) Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Unconditioned response (UCR) Conditioned stimulus (CS) Conditioned response (CR) Using the terminology NS, UCS, UCR, CS, CR draw diagrams for the following examples: 1) A child sneezes when there are flowers about. She often visits her grandmother’s house, where there are flowers. Even when there are no flowers at her grandmother’s house, she still sneezes. 14
  • 15. 2) A child is afraid of spiders. One day he is in a lift and notices a spider. Now he is afraid of lifts. What is extinction? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. What is spontaneous recovery? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
  • 16. 2. Operant conditioning - CONSEQUENCES Skinners’ pigeons How did Skinner carry out his experiments? Use the ABC model to explain. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Explain primary reinforcement ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Explain secondary reinforcement ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
  • 17. Explain punishment ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 types of reinforcer; 1. Primary reinforcers - ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2. Secondary reinforcers – ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
  • 18. Evaluate classical and operant conditioning as explanations of human behaviour Strengths Weaknesses 18
  • 19. 3. One treatment – token economy What is token economy? Which learning principle is it based upon? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
  • 20. There are steps that can be taken to implement token economy. Complete the following table. Step What happens? 1. Identify the behaviour that has to be changed 2. Select the tokens and decide what they can be exchanged for 3. Make sure that the tokens or ‘points’ buy significant rewards 4. Set goals that are achievable 5. Explain the whole programme to the individuals concerned 6. Feedback on progress 20
  • 21. 7. Provide the reward 8. Reviewing the programme Evaluate the use of the token economy programme Strengths Weaknesses 21
  • 22. 4. Social learning theory – OBSERVATION, IMITATION, MODELING Albert Bandura Bandura proposed social learning is achieved if the following four steps are taken; 1. 2. 3. 4. Who makes an effective role model? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22
  • 23. What is vicarious reinforcement? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Evaluate the Social Learning theory as an explanation for human behaviour Strengths Weaknesses 23
  • 24. 5. Gender development How can SLT explain gender development? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
  • 25. Evaluate SLT’s explanation of gender development Strengths Weaknesses 25
  • 26. STUDIES IN DETAIL Bandura, Ross & Ross (1961) Using APRC method write out the study. AIM PROCEDURE 26
  • 27. RESULTS CONCLUSION 27
  • 28. Complete the following evaluation table for Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) Strengths Weaknesses 28
  • 29. Watson & Rayner (1920) Using APRC method, write out Watson & Rayner (1920) AIM PROCEDURE RESULTS 29
  • 30. CONCLUSION Complete the following evaluation table for Watson & Rayner (1920) Strengths Weaknesses 30
  • 31. - KEY ISSUE – Is there an increase of female violence related to changing role models? You must relate LEARNING APPROACH concepts and ideas to the key issue. Provide an overview of the key issue, relating EVERY point you make to a concept, idea or evidence from the learning approach. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________
  • We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks