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1. Individual Differences Approach Personality 2. Individual Differences Approach <ul><li>Examines how people are similar and how they differ in their…
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  • 1. Individual Differences Approach Personality
  • 2. Individual Differences Approach <ul><li>Examines how people are similar and how they differ in their thinking, feeling and behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, people can be classified according to intelligence and personality characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>People are complex = multiple theories and evidence as to what are prevailing aspects of psychological differences. </li></ul>
  • 3. Two different approaches <ul><li>Idiographic – approach based on individuals. Emphasises uniqueness. Can be understood through use of techniques, e.g. case studies, which are designed to reflect uniqueness. </li></ul><ul><li>Nomothetic – based on the idea of laws of behaviour which are applied to everyone & can be used to compare people with each other. Uses statistical techniques to accumulate large amounts of data. </li></ul>
  • 4. Individual Differences Approach <ul><li>Uses the nomothetic approach to studying Personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Types, Traits, and Factors: Three Ways of Describing Personality </li></ul>
  • 5. Personality <ul><li>From the Latin ‘persona’ meaning an actor’s mask. </li></ul><ul><li>What is personality ? : </li></ul><ul><li>characteristic pattern of behaviours, attitudes, interests, capabilities, </li></ul><ul><li>pattern is integrated, </li></ul><ul><li>unique ( a means of differentiating between individuals), </li></ul><ul><li>it is relatively stable (though there is some disagreement about this), </li></ul><ul><li>forms a basis for predicting future behaviour. </li></ul>
  • 6. The study of personality <ul><li>systematic account of the ways that people differ,and a logical framework for predictions. </li></ul><ul><li>need it to make sense of ourselves and others, and professionally, to assess certain groups of people. </li></ul><ul><li>a personality theory should describe a structure and describe the dynamics of how behaviour is produced. </li></ul>
  • 7. Traits <ul><li>personality characteristic that makes one person different from another and/or that describes an individual’s personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Trait scores are continuous (quantitative) variables. Person given numeric score to indicate how much of a trait the person possesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretically, there are a great many traits to describe everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>A person can be described on every trait. </li></ul>
  • 8. Trait Theory <ul><li>Eysenck and Cattell saw personality as a collection of traits= underlying characteristics which determine behaviour and make that behaviour possible to predict. Can predict behaviour in all situations. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., if a tennis player is identified as assertive they are assertive regardless of the situation. </li></ul>
  • 9. Cattell’s Trait Theory <ul><li>Cattell’s Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inductive method to gather data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 different methods for gathering data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Q data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided traits into common and unique traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach yielded 35 primary/first-order traits </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Measurement <ul><li>Cattell wanted to systematically & methodically describe personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Important to have method for obtaining reliable & valid measure of personality factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Best known personality test = 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) that can be used with normal PPs & clinical populations. </li></ul>
  • 11. Types of data <ul><li>1. Q-data ( questionnaire data) –is obtained by asking people to describe themselves in response to a set of standard questions (Multiple choice, true/false). </li></ul><ul><li>Pros - easy to administer & quick access to information. </li></ul><ul><li>Con - people may impression manage (e.g., lie to make themselves look good). </li></ul>
  • 12. Types of data <ul><li>2. T-data (objective test data) – obtained by asking people to take various tests (projective, physical, reaction times) in which purpose of test isn’t obvious. </li></ul><ul><li>Pros - this should reduce impression managing; provides objective data. </li></ul><ul><li>Cons - objective tests may be of limited use. </li></ul>
  • 13. Types of data <ul><li>3. L-data (life record data) –obtained by gathering life history of person (personal records), such as grade point average, driving history, letters of recommendation, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Pros - information can be obtained with requiring PPs to fill out questionnaires. </li></ul><ul><li>Cons - provides limited information about individual. </li></ul>
  • 14. Eysenck’s Factor Theory <ul><li>Three General Superfactors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroticism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoticism </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Eysenck’s Theory of Personality (1947) <ul><li>700 neurotic battle-fatigued soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Factor analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Two dimensions </li></ul>Aggressive Active Sociable carefree Passive Calm Moody quiet
  • 16. Eysenck continued …………… <ul><li>Eysenck later added a third dimension: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotic Non- psychotic </li></ul><ul><li>According to Eysenck, a person could be located anywhere along the dimensions. </li></ul>
  • 17. TASK <ul><li>From your textbook P.155 make bullet point notes on the biological basis of Eysenck’s Trait Theory. </li></ul>
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