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1. Summary question answers Chapter 1: Models of memory no difficulty in transferring information into his long-term memory. According to the multi-store model, transfer…
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  • 1. Summary question answers Chapter 1: Models of memory no difficulty in transferring information into his long-term memory. According to the multi-store model, transfer to The multi-store model LTM depends on a functioning STM. The WM, on the other 1 These are all components of the multi-store model of hand, can explain KF’s selective impairment because it memory and reflect different stages in the processing suggests that there is more than one component to STM. of sensory input. Sensory memory is a set of modality- 7 An example of a study is the one by Shepard and Feng specific, transient stores, which hold tiny amounts of (1972). They asked people to look at flattened, 3-D shapes information for very brief durations. If attention is paid, the with arrows drawn on them. The participants were then contents are passed on to short-term memory; otherwise asked to imagine folding the shapes into cubes and to decide they are lost by a process of decay. Short-term memory whether the arrows would meet head on. It was found that is a fragile, temporary store where small amounts of the time taken corresponded to the time it would have taken information can be kept for brief periods. Information if the task had been concrete rather than abstract. can be passed on to the long-term store by a process of (Other good examples of studies would be those by rehearsal. Long-term memory is a permanent memory Baddeley et al. (1973) p22 and by Klauer and Zhao store where limitless amounts of information can be stored (2004) p22.) for long periods of time. 8 Laboratory evidence such as that carried out by Klauer 2 The loss of memory caused by accident or disease usually and Zhao (2004) suggest that there are different systems affects one type of memory but not another. This supports within the visuo-spatial sketchpad that deal with (i) form the idea that there are different types of memory. By and colour and (ii) spatial and movement information. investigating the effects of the memory loss, psychologists Further evidence for this distinction has been supplied by can better understand how memory works in normally PET scan studies, which have shown activity in different functioning brains. parts of the brain for the two types of task. 3 One of the main methods used to measure the capacity 9 The central executive is the key component of WM. It of STM is the digit span technique. Participants are required to repeat back strings of digits in order of manages and coordinates all the activities within the presentation. The number of digits in the string is system. Without it, the slave systems would be unable to gradually increased until participants can no longer recall operate effectively. However, even Baddeley has admitted them in the correct order. The maximum number of that it is difficult to investigate and other researchers digits recalled in serial order reflects the capacity of STM have questioned whether it can be a single component or – this is usually seven plus or minus two items. Another whether it consists of separate systems. way of measuring capacity is to give participants a list 10 Watching television is not just a visual activity – in order of words as a free recall task and then to measure the to understand what is going on, the viewer has to listen to recency effect (i.e. the number of items recalled from the characters/presenters. This listening activity involves the last portion of the list). A rather different way of the phonological loop. Homework usually involves reading measuring capacity is to find out how many items people and/or writing. In order to read and write, we make use can recall in about 1.5 seconds. The main strength of all of subvocal rehearsal, i.e. we ‘talk to ourselves’ under our these methods is that they are replicable experimental breath. According to the WM, we cannot do two things at techniques which can be carried out under controlled once, which make use of the same slave system. If people conditions. The main weakness is that they use artificial do try to do homework and watch TV at the same time, stimuli and may not reflect everyday memory. they have to keep switching their attention between the 4 Think about Bahrick’s experiment. When people are trying two so they are not fully concentrating on either activity. to remember things from the distant past, they are more successful if they have cues to help them. This turns the Chapter 2: Memory in everyday life task into a recognition task and research shows that this facilitates memory more than a straight recall task. Eyewitness testimony 5 1 Juries and police officers set great store by EWT and many It is true that the model was influential because, through the information processing approach, it allowed psychologists to criminal convictions have depended on EWT. In view of construct testable models of memory. It laid the foundations the serious consequences of wrongful conviction, it is for most of the important research into memory that has important to know whether EWT can be relied on and occurred over the past few years. However, other models to know what sort of things affect accurate recall. Once have now superseded it because they are able to account for psychologists establish what kind of factors increase the bulk of research evidence more effectively. unreliability, they can devise ways (e.g. the cognitive interview technique) to help witnesses recall more The working memory model accurately. 6 KF had a digit span of only two items, which suggested that 2 Studies carried out in laboratory conditions are usually well his STM was hugely impaired and yet he appeared to have controlled and reliable. However, this comes at a price. 1
  • 2. Answers Laboratory studies are usually artificial and often give rise 9 This is another way of adding meaning and understanding to demand characteristics. This is a particular problem to what we have to remember. We can recall things better for research into topics like EWT when the laboratory if we are in the same context as when we committed conditions are very unlike the real-life situations. People them to memory. We can either put ourselves physically who are eyewitnesses at real-life events are not forewarned in the same context, e.g. return to the room where we first that they will be exposed to a crime scene/accident and stored the memory or we can imagine ourselves back in the so are often not paying full attention. They are also often context, e.g. during the cognitive interview when witnesses emotionally aroused in response to a real-life incident are asked to think themselves back at the scene. whereas this is unlikely to be the case in a laboratory set-up. 10 You could use the keyword system. For example, you could 3 This is not straightforward. Laboratory investigations, think of a well-known Harry (e.g. Harry Potter or Prince e.g. weapon effect studies, suggest that anxiety impairs Harry or someone else you know personally) and then think recall by limiting the witness’s focus of attention. Real-life of a sea-shore (Shore is spelt differently from Shaw but it studies, however, suggest that victims of crime, i.e. people sounds the same). Then imagine Harry Potter (or whichever who are most threatened (and, therefore, anxious) can be Harry you have in your mind) and picture him sitting on a very accurate in their recall. sea-shore. Next time you see Harry Shaw, you should be 4 Children are thought to differ in several ways. For example, able to conjure up this image and recall his name. This is they are more willing to select suspects from an identity because imagery has been shown to be a powerful tool in parade although they are often inaccurate in their choice. recalling information accurately. They also seem more susceptible than adults to the effects of misleading post-information – this is particularly true Chapter 3: Attachment of very young children. Children also seem to show more of a decline in accuracy of recall over time than adults. The formation of attachments in human babies However, some researchers believe that the differences 1 You could refer to seeking proximity; distress on separation; between adults and children have been overstated and joy on reunion; and orientation of behaviour. that children can be just as reliable if they are questioned 2 Up to about six weeks babies do not mind who looks after carefully. them. Between six weeks and six months they become 5 You might ask her to mentally reinstate the context of increasingly sociable with a range of people. From about six the mugging. She should try to recall exactly where she or seven months of age, specific attachments are formed, was and what was going on around her, what the weather shown by separation and stranger anxiety. From about nine was like, what she was thinking and feeling at the time, months onwards, most infants form multiple attachments. what had happened just before. It would also be helpful 3 Separation anxiety takes place when the baby cries and if she could think about the event in reverse order, i.e. protests when separated from their attachment figure. work backwards from being attacked to earlier in the day. Stranger anxiety refers to the baby crying when faced She could also be asked to try to imagine the mugging with an unfamiliar person. Both take place after specific from the point of view of the mugger or of someone who attachments are formed around seven months of age. was standing on the other side of the street. This type of questioning would fit with the principles of the cognitive 4 The baby has formed an attachment to his mother interview technique which prompts recall by encouraging and shows this behaviour by protesting when they are witnesses to think about events in a variety of ways. This separated. As he does not recognise you, he classes you as may provide a more complete picture of the events. a stranger and is afraid of you. Strategies for memory improvement Why do babies develop attachments? 6 These are techniques for remembering. They are often used 5 Learning theories argue that attachments are formed when we need to remember lists of things. For example, through classical and operant conditioning. The baby medical students use them to remember the names of associates food with the person who feeds them and, over anatomical features and processes. Some examples are the time, this person comes to produce the same conditioned peg-word system and the method of loci. response as food. According to operant conditioning, the 7 Visual imagery is when we conjure up a picture in our mind. baby cries, which is unpleasant for the parent so they pick It seems to help our memory and one suggestion is that it up, cuddle and feed the baby, which stops them crying. This provides dual coding, i.e. we can remember a word in its acts as negative reinforcement so the parent repeats the verbal form and also in its visual form. behaviour to stop the unpleasant crying. Crying produces a reward (or positive reinforcement) in the form of food so 8 If we try to remember something that is completely the baby repeats the behaviour to gain the reward. unfamiliar to us, it puts a huge burden on our memory resources. For example, the passage used by Bransford 6 Harlow and Harlow’s study of rhesus monkeys shows that and Johnson appears meaningless and so we have to try they did not attach to the wire surrogate mother who fed to remember every single word because it does not make them but to the cloth surrogate mother who was warm sense as a whole. Once we can put the passage in context and cuddly. This suggests that attachments are not just (e.g. we have a title for it) and we understand what is based on feeding. going on, we can rely on our stored knowledge to ease the 7 Bowlby argues that babies have an instinct to form memory burden. It is the same with chunking – it is difficult attachments as staying close to the mother helps them to recall more than about seven letters in serial order, but, to survive. He argues that one attachment is more if we group letters into understandable, meaningful units important than the rest, which is called monotropy. The (e.g. words) we can remember a lot more. first relationship between the baby and mother is said to 2
  • 3. Answers give the child an internal working model, which serves as a enabled Ainsworth to control factors including the arrival template for future relationships. of the stranger and separation from the mother. This 8 Bowlby’s theory is supported by Hazan and Shaver’s unfamiliar environment in Ainsworth’s Strange Situation love quiz study, which showed that attachments and was probably more stressful for the infants as they were in relationship experiences in adulthood were related to first unfamiliar surroundings. The validity of Ainsworth’s study attachments supporting the idea of the internal working may also have been lowered as the babies could have model. Evidence by Schaffer and Emerson suggests that responded differently to strangers such as babysitters in multiple attachments are the rule rather than monotropy. the safety of their own home. This suggests that Schaffer and Emerson’s observational research was more ethical and 9 According to evolutionary explanations such as Bowlby’s valid than Ainsworth’s. attachment theory, babies are biologically programmed to develop attachments. This approach argues that Cultural variations in attachment attachment kept babies close to their caregiver which 14 The secure attachment is most common in all cultures. ensured their survival in a hostile world. Bowlby also argued that babies form one attachment which is more 15 Babies from Germany are encouraged to be independent important than the rest, which he called monotropy. from an early age and are more likely to be classed as This first relationship is said to give the baby an ‘Internal avoidant in the Strange Situation. In contrast, babies from Working Model’ on which to base later relationships. Japan are rarely separated from their mothers and are likely Not everyone agrees with this explanation. Learning to show the most distress when the mother leaves the theorists argue that attachments are formed on the basis room. of rewards, especially feeding. Evidence from research by 16 Inter-cultural variation refers to the differences between Schaffer and Emerson contradicts this as many babies cultures whereas intra-cultural variation refers to the formed their first attachment to a person who did not differences within a particular culture. feed them. In contrast, Bowlby’s theory has received 17 A meta-analysis involves bringing together and re- considerable support. Some studies, for example Hazan analysing the findings of a number of studies which have and Shaver’s Love Quiz, have supported the claim that later used the same method. One example of this was the study relationships are influenced by first attachments. However, by Van IJendoorn and Kroonenberg who brought together not everyone agrees with Bowlby’s claim regarding the findings of a range of studies which used Ainsworth’s monotropy. Strange Situation methodology. One positive criticism of Types of attachment, including insecure and meta-analyses is that the samples involved are very large, in this case, over 2000 babies and their mothers were used. secure attachments However, the use of a large sample does not always mean 10 Secure attachments are shown when the baby uses the that the results can be generalised. In this study, 27 of caregiver as a safe base and is happy to explore when the 33 pieces of research had been carried out in western they are present. They protest when the caregiver leaves countries and overall, the meta-analysis was dominated and show joy when they return. They generally treat the by US research. Although the study is large, this is a caregiver and stranger very differently. biased sample. However, because meta-analyses involve Insecure attachments come in two types, avoidant and secondary data, there are no direct ethical issues associated ambivalent. Insecurely attached children do not generally with this type of research. use the caregiver as safe base. Avoidant babies hardly notice the mother’s departure and do not react at her Disruption of attachment return. Ambivalent babies protest loudly when mother 18 Separation anxiety can be shown by the child becoming leaves but do not settle down on her return. ‘clingy’ and/or alternatively behaving in a detached way 11 The Strange Situation methodology is easy to replicate towards their caregiver. Disinhibited attachment patterns and has led to many studies, which have investigated are shown in some children who have been raised in differences in attachments. institutions. They may be attention-seeking and show none of the fears of strangers that are characteristic of normally The Strange Situation is stressful for babies as it attached children. deliberately exposes them to departure of the caregiver and to a stranger when they are in an unfamiliar environment. 19 The age of the child is important with children aged around 12–18 months being most affected. Children who are given 12 Ainsworth argued that differences in attachment types good quality substitute care are likely to suffer less than were due to the sensitivity of the caregiver. However, other those who do not receive good care. evidence by Kagan suggests that the temperament of the baby may also be important and that some babies may 20 Tizard and Hodges found that children could form be difficult or slow to warm up. Ainsworth’s explanation attachments after the age of four. Those who were adopted blames the parent for the child’s insecure attachment, in the study formed closer relationships than those who which could lead to parents feeling guilty. were returned to their biological parents. 13 Schaffer and Emerson (1964) carried out observational 21 One possible effect of institutionalisation is disinhibited research in which babies were studied in their own attachment pattern where children seek attention from environment. Mothers rated the babies’ behaviour in adults and seek inappropriate physical contact. situations where they were temporarily separated and 22 Many factors can influence how well a child recovers from the researchers observed the babies’ response when they early institutionalisation. One of the most important is approached them on each visit. In contrast, Ainsworth the age of the child and the length of time they are in the asked mothers and their infants to attend a purpose-built institution. Those who are adopted or fostered earlier, as laboratory playroom in the Strange Situation study. This shown by Rutter’s research, suffer fewer adverse effects 3
  • 4. Answers and are less likely to show disinhibited attachment 7 Structural characteristics include these aspects of day patterns than those late adopted. Another very important care which are set by legislation such as the ratio of adults factor is the quality of care provided by the institutions. to children and the size of the day care group. These Dontas’ study showed that where babies were able to form are very important in ensuring that children have good attachments to staff, they fared much better in follow-up experiences of day care and that they receive enough adult studies. Another very important factor is the quality of care attention during the day. Process characteristics refer to after the child leaves the institution. Case studies such as the emotional environment provided for children in day Kolochova’s and natural experiments including Tizard’s care. Bowlby’s theory pointed to the need for children to have shown that a warm ‘one to one’ attachment is best have a warm attachment with a consistent caregiver who for children who have been in institutions. provides a safe base for them to explore and play. Studies have shown that day care is a stress
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