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1. Topics in Psychology EATING BEHAVIOUR UNIT 3 2. SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS: TOPIC SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS EXAM RELATED Q EATING BEHAVIOUR…
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  • 1. Topics in Psychology EATING BEHAVIOUR UNIT 3
  • 2. SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS: TOPIC SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS EXAM RELATED Q EATING BEHAVIOUR <ul><li>Factors influencing attitude to food and eating behaviour e.g. cultural influences, mood, health concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations for success or failure of dieting </li></ul><ul><li>Describe people’s attitudes to food and eating behaviour and discuss at least two factors that affect people’s attitudes to food and eating behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and evaluate research that has investigated how these factors influence attitudes to food and eating behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>D & E key reasons for why dieting succeeds and why it fails.- research </li></ul>BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF EATING BEHAVIOUR <ul><li>The role of neural mechanisms involved in controlling eating and satiation </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary explanations of food preferences </li></ul><ul><li>explain ways in which neural mechanisms control eating behaviour and satiation and evaluate biological explanations of eating behaviours and satiation </li></ul><ul><li>Explain and evaluate food preferences from an evolutionary perspective, including reference to relevant research </li></ul>EATING DISORDER <ul><li>Psychological explanations of ONE eating disorder i.e. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Obesity . </li></ul><ul><li>Biological explanations including, neural and evolutionary explanations for ONE eating disorder for example anorexia nervosa, bulimia, obesity </li></ul><ul><li>explain one eating disorder from at least two psychological perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>D & E psychological research into ONE eating disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the usefulness of two psychological explanations of ONE eating disorder </li></ul><ul><li>D& E biological explanations of ONE eating disorder </li></ul><ul><li>D & E research into neural and evolutionary explanations of one eating disorder </li></ul>
  • 3. Relationship with food
  • 4. <ul><li>EATING BEHAVIOUR: </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing attitude to food and eating behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations for success or failure of dieting </li></ul>
  • 5. FACTORS INFLUENCING ATTITUDE TO FOOD AND EATING BEHAVIOUR <ul><li>What are the attitudes to food? </li></ul><ul><li>Represent comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Distraction from boredom </li></ul><ul><li>Todhunter (1983) Food is prestige, status and wealth – communication i.e. apple for teacher, affection, etc </li></ul><ul><li>CORE COGNITONS OF FOOD: </li></ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy – I am confident I eat healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Costs – eating makes me fat </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits – makes me healthy </li></ul><ul><li>ROLE OF LEARNING : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Babies born with taste receptors for sweet, sour, bitter tastes. Identify what they like/dislike from young age </li></ul><ul><li>2. experiences and familiarity increase food preferences Birch and Marlin (1982) exposure of two year olds to new food over 6 weeks increased preference for that food (minimum 8-10 exposures) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Birch (1999) born with innate ability to associate food tastes and smells with consequences of eating that food </li></ul><ul><li>PARENTAL ATTITUDE </li></ul><ul><li>Mothers attitude to food will affect child’s preferences – Olgen (2007) significant correlation between diet of mum & child </li></ul><ul><li>Peers and Modelling – increase consumption of eggfruit (Lowe et al, 1998). TV make food attractive. Advertised food high in fat and carbs </li></ul><ul><li>Parents use operant conditioning, rewards. For disliked food (i.e. have ice cream if eat veg) works in short term but Long term increases desirability of reward food and decrease liking for non-preferred food (Birch, 1999) </li></ul>
  • 6. FACTORS INFLUENCING ATTITUDE TO FOOD AND EATING BEHAVIOUR <ul><li>What are the attitudes to food? </li></ul><ul><li>CORE COGNITONS OF FOOD: </li></ul><ul><li>ROLE OF LEARNING: </li></ul><ul><li>PARENTAL ATTITUDE </li></ul><ul><li>Mothers attitude to food will affect child’s preferences – Olgen (2007) significant correlation between diet of mum & child </li></ul><ul><li>Peers and Modelling – increase consumption of veg.fruit (Lowe et al, 1998). TV make food attractive. Advertised food high in fat and carbs </li></ul><ul><li>Parents use operant conditioning, rewards. For disliked food (i.e. have ice cream if eat veg) works in short term but Long term increases desirability of reward food and decrease liking for non-preferred food (Birch, 1999) </li></ul>
  • 7. RESEARCH STUDY into factors influencing attitude to food: <ul><li>NICKLAUS ET AL (2004) (read and highlight p166 AQA textbook) </li></ul><ul><li>What did the study show about food preferences for children aged 2-3 at nurseries </li></ul><ul><li>What methodological evaluations could you make? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any evaluations of the study? </li></ul>
  • 8. Cultural influences, mood and health concerns Factors influencing attitude to food and eating behaviour AO1 Culture <ul><li>Wardle et al (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Picca Indians of New Mexico vs. Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Flight et al (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Stoneman and Brody (1981) </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Liou and Contento (2001) </li></ul>Mood <ul><li>Sweet, starchy, carbs when low. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to CC, OC, SLT </li></ul><ul><li>Gibson (2006) The serotonin hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Macht and Dettmer (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Smith et al (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Warsink et al (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Wolff et al (2000) </li></ul>Health <ul><li>Government eating plan </li></ul>
  • 9. EVALUATIONS : <ul><li>Research on mood states that comfort foods should display nutritional information to stop depressed people eating badly, such habits can contribute to becoming bulimic </li></ul><ul><li>Eating behaviour can be seen an inter-relation of internal variables such as sensory qualities and external variables such as social context. Suggesting that it is the influence of several factors that act with each other that determines attitudes and behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Findings from research could be used to create eating programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Nature and nurture cannot be separated. They are combined such as the effects of learning experiences and innate food preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Have to take into account social environment, personality and amount of health messages people receive and how they process the information. </li></ul>
  • 10. Culture, mood and health concerns – teacher notes <ul><li>CULTURE: </li></ul><ul><li>Wardle et al (1997) surveyed the diets of 16,000 young adults across 21 European countries. In general eating a basic and healthy diet was low with females. Males did better. </li></ul><ul><li>-People in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Holland ate most fibre </li></ul><ul><li>Italy, Portugal and Spain ate most fruit (less in Scotland and England) </li></ul><ul><li>Polish and Portugal high salt intake. ‘Mediterranean diet’ lower level heart disease and obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Key diffs in diet were that used olive oil (unsaturated fats), high levels of fruit and veg, moderate levels of dairy products eaten, moderate levels of fish and poultry, low levels of red meat and low intake of wine. Low processed food and more natural products. </li></ul><ul><li>Pica Indians of New Mexico those who stay in their communities have low levels of obesity. Those who move to areas heavily influenced by American Culture and diet develop high levels of obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Flight et al (2008) compared two groups of Australian high school students aged 12-18 from remote rural areas and cosmopolitan city areas. The city students exposed to cultural diversity than rural students and more familiar with different foods and more willing to try different food (less neophobic – i.e. willing to try novel food) </li></ul><ul><li>Stoneman and Brody (1981) found children expressed preference for foods advertised when children more similar to them racially than different </li></ul><ul><li>Religion – dietary laws based on religious writings and fundamental beliefs. Many religious customs and laws can be traced to early concerns for health and safety in eating foods, Preservation methods such as freezing not available. Jewish law - can’t eat animals that do not have cloven hooves such as pigs and rabbits and lobsters, shrimps. Islam follows rules of Halal- Hindus and Sikhs do not eat beef </li></ul><ul><li>Liou and Contento (2001) Chinese- American women investigated. found that the degree of acculturation in terms of accepting and conforming to US norms was reflected in food preference with less acculturated women maintaining a traditionally Chinese diet. </li></ul><ul><li>--------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>MOOD : </li></ul><ul><li>Many people crave sweet, starchy, crabs when feeling low.- called comfort eating. Due to CC – learned association with feeling low and compensating by eating chocolate or other sweet food. OC – associated feelings of happiness or pleasure even if these are temporary and SLT- chocolate marketed as product of bringing happiness and we see choc as reward and reward ourselves in same way. </li></ul><ul><li>Gibson (2006) The serotonin hypothesis: carbs such as choc contain amino acid ‘tryptophan’ used by brain to make serotonin. Low levels associated with dep and makes our mood better for short term. </li></ul><ul><li>Macht and Dettmer (2006) studied mood change in relation to eating choc or an apple. Both raised mood and reduced hunger but choc was more powerful. Led to happy but guilty feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Opiate hypothesis – have opiate neurotransmitter. i.e. Beta-endorphin. Can produce pleasurable feelings and euphoria. Sweet foods increase the release of endorphins in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Smith et al (2003) looked at the effects of caffeine on mood and cognitive performances and found two normal strength coffee increased mood, alertness and concentration, general task performance and memory </li></ul>
  • 11. Teacher notes <ul><li>Wansink et al (08) offered popcorn and grapes to pp. Watching a sad film ate more popcorn to cheer self up and ate more grapes during a comedy to prolong their mood </li></ul><ul><li>Wolff et al (2000) female binge eaters had more negative moods on binge eating days compared to normal female eaters. Suggesting negative moods related to abnormal eating practices </li></ul><ul><li>HEALTH: </li></ul><ul><li>The government and health professionals have produced guideline as to what constitutes as a healthy diet. Includes carbs, whole grain, fruit and veg, protein, oily fish, limited amounts of sugary, fatty and salty foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Eating plan reduce risk of heart disease, stroke, high BP, some cancers and Type 2 diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>(p116-118 of Erika Cox textbook) </li></ul>
  • 12. Knowledge and understanding <ul><li>DESCRIBE TWO EXPLANATIONS OF THE ORGIINS OF ATTITUDES TO FOOD AND EATING BEHAVIOUR </li></ul><ul><li>OUTLINE 4 CRITICAL POINTS INCLUDING SYNOPTICITY </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss attitudes to food and or eating behaviour (25) </li></ul>
  • 13. EXPLANATIONS FOR THE SUCCESS OR FAILURE OF DIETING : <ul><li>Why do so many people want to lose weight? (Ogden, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Media influence – images in the media (especially for women) become more slimmer over the last 50 years </li></ul><ul><li>Family – mothers may act as model for body dissatisfaction or a product of the r’ship </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity – Black and Asian women being exposed to western media and more eating disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Social Class- eating disorders frequent in higher class </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-groups- reinforcement, dieting a norm for the group and praise seen as a reward. </li></ul>
  • 14. Success or failure of dieting weightwatchers
  • 15. Explanations for the success or failure of dieting <ul><li>WHEN DIETING IS SUCCESSFUL </li></ul><ul><li>Kirkley et al (1988) assessed the eating style of 50 women using dietary self monitoring forms for four days and reported that restrained eaters consumed fewer calories than unrestrained eaters. Similarly, found that interventions involving strategies such as calorie-controlled diets, cognitive behavioral therapy or healthy eating can result in changes in eating behavior and weight in first few months (Wadden, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational style seen as psychological variable for weight loss (Williams, 1996). Kiernan et al (1988) found individuals who were more dissatisfied with their body shape at baseline were more successful – attractiveness was seen as a key point </li></ul><ul><li>Ogden (2000) investigated psychological differences between weight loss regainers (stable obese) and weight loss maintainers (had been obese) Weight loss maintainers had a psychological model of obesity associated with low self-esteem and depression. Motivated to lose weight for psychological reasons, such as wanting to boost self-esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>Ogden and Hills (2008) interviewed people who had successfully lost weight and maintained weight loss and reported that much weight loss was triggered by key life events such as divorce/illness </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas and Stern (1995) found that financial incentives did not promote significant weight loss or help maintain weight loss. Did find that creating group contacts does have some success, suggesting that social support has a motivational role to play – positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Miller-Kovach et al (2001) reported that social support methods offered by weight watchers significantly superior to individual dieting regimes over a period of 2 years. Creates the social network which is the motivational device </li></ul><ul><li>Lowe et al (2004) found an average of 71.6% of weight watchers members maintained a body weight loss of at least 5%. </li></ul><ul><li>Bartlett (2003) dieting success occurs best with target of reducing calorific intake of between 500-1,000 calories a day, resulting in weight loss of about one to two pounds a week. Supporting idea that achievable goal setting is a strong motivational force </li></ul><ul><li>Wing and Hill (2001) reported common behavior that led to successful weight los and its maintenance included a low fat diet, constant monitoring of food intake and weight & exercise </li></ul>
  • 16. Explanations for the success or failure of dieting <ul><li>WHEN DIETING IS SUCCESSFUL </li></ul><ul><li>Kirkley et al (1988) </li></ul><ul><li>. Similarly, found that interventions involving strategies such as calorie-controlled diets, cognitive behavioral therapy or healthy eating can result in changes in eating behavior and weight in first few months (Wadden, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational style seen as psychological variable for weight loss (Williams, 1996). </li></ul><ul><li>Kiernan et al (1988) </li></ul><ul><li>Ogden (2000) investigated psychological differences between weight loss regainers (stable obese) and weight loss maintainers (had been obese) Weight loss maintainers had a psychological model of obesity associated with low self-esteem and depression. Motivated to lose weight for psychological reasons, such as wanting to boost self-esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>Ogden and Hills (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas and Stern (1995) found that financial incentives did not promote significant weight loss or help maintain weight loss. Did find that creating group contacts does have some success, suggesting that social support has a motivational role to play – positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Miller-Kovach et al (2001) reported that social support methods offered by weight watchers significantly superior to individual dieting regimes over a period of 2 years. Creates the social network which is the motivational device </li></ul><ul><li>Lowe et al (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Bartlett (2003) dieting success occurs best with target of reducing calorific intake of between 500-1,000 calories a day, resulting in weight loss of about one to two pounds a week. Supporting idea that achievable goal setting is a strong motivational force </li></ul><ul><li>Wing and Hill (2001) </li></ul>
  • 17. Explanations for the success or failure of dieting <ul><li>WHEN DIETING IS A FAILURE: </li></ul><ul><li>Jeffrey (2000) found that obese people tend to start regaining weight after 6 m due to failure to maintain behavioral changes, suggesting that factors like loss of motivation and social pressure have negative influences </li></ul><ul><li>Cummings et al (2002) found low calorie diets stimulate appetite by increasing ‘ghrelin’ production by 24% reducing chance of losing weight. The success of stomach reduction surgery may be due to reduced stomach producing less ghrelin </li></ul><ul><li>Williams et al (2002) fo
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