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1. ãPsychological (as well as physical) characteristics are governed byheredity...ãBiological inheritance is more important than learnt characteristic,intellect or…
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  • 1. •Psychological (as well as physical) characteristics are governed byheredity...•Biological inheritance is more important than learnt characteristic,intellect or talents.•Tendency to vice – (doing bad things) alcoholism and criminality allinherited.CAN BE SELECTIVELY BRED TO BE MORE OR LESS AGGRESSIVE (DOGS,FOXES ETC.)YOUNG ET AL IDENTIFIED A GENETIC MUTATION THAT BREEDSFIERCE MICE.
  • 2. •Analysis study on criminality.•Findings were DZ twins have concordance rates between 13%-22%•whilst MZ twins have rates between 26%-31%•Once both types grew up in the same environment arguablythe difference between the two was genetics.Measured aggression using a personality questionnaire and founda +0.30 correlation for DZ’s and a +0.47 correlation for MZ’s.Note correlations do not tell you about cause and effect and it isstill possible that environmental factors can play a part.Correlations not 100% so plenty of room for environmentalimpact.
  • 3. •Looked at over 14,000 people•Found a significant number of adopted boys with criminal convictionshad biological parents with criminal convictions.One criticism is that research has found the risk was higher if bothadoptee and biological parents had criminal convictions, this showsfamily environment may have an effect.Secondly, this is a study on criminality and not all crime involvesaggression so aggressive or violent crime isn’t a fair reflection of allaggression.
  • 4. •9 out of 314 patients in a high security hospital housing dangerousand violent criminals had an extra Y chromosome.•Court-Brown argued that XYY’s should be kept hospitalised becauseof the increased risk of showing aggressive behaviour.The media coined the term Supermale and based on assumptionmales tend to be more aggressive.Richard Speck apparently killed 8 nurses and claimed hewas a victim of XYY syndrome.View is an example of biological determinism.
  • 5. •Compared XYY’s to XY controls.•The findings were XYY’s would give more aggressive responses in thematicApperception tests (TAT) asked to interpret pictures, finish text etc.Linked to breakdown of neurotransmitters e.g. serotonin and dopamine andneuropinaphren in synapses.The defect on this gene can result in low levels of MAO-A and this can lead toaggression.So because neurotransmitters are not getting broken down the brain getsdesensitised and so aggression may be more common.•Dutch family, many of the male members were aggressive and beeninvolved in numerous criminal acts including rape and arson and theywere found to have a defective MAO-A gene.•Point of criticism is just because behaviour runs in a family does notindicate it is genetic. SLT can be an explanation.
  • 6. It has major social implications (e.g. Galton’s eugenics motivated theNazi holocaust) if people are inferior, get rid of them.Raises issues of how animals should be treated.Naturally violent hard to rehabilitate so maybe should be permanentlylocked up etc.or genetic engineering or stop them breeding.•Ethical issues etc and difficulties in generalising from animals to humans•Humans are capable of high-order reasoning and arguably less bound by biology becauseof it. So biologically reductionist explanations are inadequate.
  • 7. Many studies start by looking at mental institutions or prisons.Aggression is more likely in these places so unsurprisingly find it.Also you can go to prison for one major offence which many lessserious offences go unpunished.Prison is not a sensitive measure of aggression. So should really lookat people aggressive tendencies if research is to be valid and notsimply acts of criminal violence and subsequent incarnation.You can learn aggression, twins have similar environments.•34,000 infants who’d been screened at birth and compared XYY’s with matched controls.•XYY’s had a higher rate of criminal convictions but these were against property not people &linked to low IQ.•Maybe just more likely to get caught. May link to frustration because they find it difficult tocommunicate what they want.
  • 8. •People with the same MAO-A mutation showed different levels ofaggression depending on how they were raised as children.•Only likely to be aggressive if they had been abused, anenvironmental impact. Nature/nurture•Has harmful consequences for particular groups of people.•Small samples used/inadequate controls drawn from groups likely to have a highproportion of XYY’s like prisons.•Women would have abortions.•Not the fault of the man – deterministic•Not societies fault either, not a lot can be done
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