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1. Capacity and Encoding Multi-Store Model 2. Thinking Back <ul><li>What is the capacity of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>STM?…
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  • 1. Capacity and Encoding Multi-Store Model
  • 2. Thinking Back <ul><li>What is the capacity of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>STM? </li></ul><ul><li>LTM? </li></ul><ul><li>SM? </li></ul><ul><li>What studies back up your arguments? </li></ul>
  • 3. Joseph Jacobs <ul><li>1887 </li></ul><ul><li>school teacher </li></ul><ul><li>tested memory for digits and letters </li></ul><ul><li>participants read lists then immediately recited them back </li></ul><ul><li>stopped when only 50% could be remembered </li></ul><ul><li>Now let’s try. </li></ul>
  • 4. Write Numbers as Soon as the Slide Goes Off <ul><li>6 2 5 1 9 </li></ul>
  • 6. Write Numbers as Soon as the Slide Goes Off <ul><li>5 7 0 4 2 1 </li></ul>
  • 8. Write Numbers as Soon as the Slide Goes Off <ul><li>8 2 6 9 1 0 3 </li></ul>
  • 10. Write Numbers as Soon as the Slide Goes Off <ul><li>6 1 9 5 2 5 1 4 </li></ul>
  • 12. Write Numbers as Soon as the Slide Goes Off <ul><li>0 1 3 2 8 4 9 6 3 </li></ul>
  • 14. Now try with letters <ul><li>D N U V Y M X </li></ul>
  • 16. Now try with letters <ul><li>T M D S C O Q B E </li></ul>
  • 18. Jacobs’ Findings <ul><li>7 letters were remembered </li></ul><ul><li>9 numbers </li></ul><ul><li>19-year-olds remembered better than 8-year-olds </li></ul><ul><li>What about words? How do we remember words of more than 7 letters? </li></ul>
  • 19. Let’s pick some holes… <ul><li>Would this apply whatever the letters? </li></ul><ul><li>Who were Jacobs’ participants? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a reliable study? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a valid study? </li></ul>
  • 20. What is the capacity of STM <ul><li>You are going to see some screens for 1 s </li></ul><ul><li>Write down how many dots there are after each </li></ul>
  • 21. Magic Number 7 +/- 2 <ul><li>George Miller (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewed research into capacity of memory </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote an article evaluating it </li></ul><ul><li>This is called a meta-analysis </li></ul><ul><li>People can remember about 7 pieces of information </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s try with dots. </li></ul>
  • 23. How many dots were there?
  • 25. How many dots were there?
  • 27. How many dots were there?
  • 29. How many dots were there?
  • 31. How many dots were there?
  • 33. How many dots were there?
  • 35. How many dots were there?
  • 36. Magic Number 7 =/- 2 <ul><li>What other types of information? </li></ul><ul><li>Letters </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Musical notes </li></ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul><ul><li>How can we remember words? </li></ul><ul><li>We ‘chunk’ things </li></ul>
  • 37. Let’s pick some holes… <ul><li>Is this a reliable study? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a valid study? </li></ul>
  • 38. Thinking more Deeply <ul><li>How do we store information in: </li></ul><ul><li>STM? </li></ul><ul><li>LTM? </li></ul><ul><li>What studies back up your arguments? </li></ul>
  • 39. Baddeley (1966) <ul><li>Gave participants lists of words to remember </li></ul>
  • 40. Baddeley’s Methodology <ul><li>4 groups of participants: A,B,C,D </li></ul><ul><li>Group A: acoustically similar </li></ul><ul><li>Group B: acoustically dissimilar </li></ul><ul><li>Group C: semantically similar </li></ul><ul><li>Group D: semantically dissimilar </li></ul>
  • 41. Response <ul><li>Participants were given cards with words on </li></ul><ul><li>After each set of 5 asked to remember them in order </li></ul><ul><li>Now you try </li></ul>
  • 42. What did you find? <ul><li>Which lists were hardest to remember? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of memory were we testing? </li></ul><ul><li>How is information coded here? </li></ul>
  • 43. We will try again later <ul><li>What memory will we test? </li></ul><ul><li>Which lists will be hardest? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>How is information coded here? </li></ul>
  • 44. Let’s pick some holes… <ul><li>Is this a reliable study? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a valid study? </li></ul>
  • 45. Maria Brandimote (1992) <ul><li>Asked, is STM always encoded acoustically </li></ul><ul><li>Gave people visual things to remember. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensured they didn’t encode acoustically. </li></ul><ul><li>What did she find? </li></ul><ul><li>You try. </li></ul>
  • 48. Which one was it you saw?
  • 49. Now try again
  • 53. Now try again
  • 57. Let’s pick some holes… <ul><li>Is this a reliable study? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a valid study? </li></ul>
  • 58. What have we learnt? <ul><li>Capacity of LTM- infinite (Year Book Study) </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity of STM – about 7 (George Miller article) </li></ul><ul><li>STM encoded acoustically </li></ul><ul><li>LTM encoded semantically </li></ul>
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