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1. The Cognitive Approach 2. <ul><li>Basic Assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Faulty or Irrational thinking causes abnormal behaviour.…
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  • 1. The Cognitive Approach
  • 2. <ul><li>Basic Assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Faulty or Irrational thinking causes abnormal behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Human behaviour is heavily influenced by schemata </li></ul><ul><li>Many of these schemata relate to how we see ourselves (I am confident and self-assertive, I am good at relationships) </li></ul><ul><li>Schemata develop as a result of early experience </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic or unhappy experiences early in life may lead to faulty assumptions about the self. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative schemata, or core beliefs, when activated can lead to negative automatic thoughts (or NATs). These are considered to be maladaptive and dysfunctional. </li></ul>
  • 3. These negative thoughts are unconscious and rapid responses to certain situations. They can be identified as Cognitive biases. These biases prevent the person from focusing on the positive side of life and so reinforce their negative views. A tendency to see life in terms of black and white and ignoring the middle ground; you are a success or a failure rather than good at some things but not so good at others. All or nothing thinking Focusing on only the negative side of life and ignoring the wider picture. Selective Abstraction Maximising the importance of trivial failures. Thinking you’re stupid if you fail to complete a Sudoku. Maximisation The bias towards minimising success in life. Eg Attributing good exam results to luck. Minimisation Explanation Cognitive Bias
  • 4. <ul><li>Beck’s Cognitive Triad </li></ul><ul><li>Aaron Beck’s (1979) model of depression involved three negative schemata: </li></ul><ul><li>Negative view of the self ( I am incompetent and undeserving) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative view of the world ( it is a hostile place) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative view of the future ( Problems will not disappear. I will always be useless.) </li></ul><ul><li>These negative schemata can be seen in the attributions depressed people make i.e. their explanations of why things happen. </li></ul><ul><li>Attributions can be internal or external. ( ‘It’s all my fault’ or ‘the whole world is against me’) </li></ul><ul><li>Attributions can be specific or global ( i.e. to one particular event or to all events) </li></ul><ul><li>Attributions can be stable or unstable ( they attributions may change depending on the situation or stay the same in all situations.) </li></ul>
  • 5. Ellis’s ABC model Ellis suggested that (A) an action is affected by (B) and individual’s beliefs which results in (C) a consequence If beliefs are subject to cognitive biases (in the same way as Becks) then they can cause irrational thinking which may produce undesirable behaviours. Example: Emma overhears a remark made in class ‘she really gets on my nerves’. It could have referred to anyone but Emma believes that she is unworthy and people don’t want to be friends with her. She withdraws from the friendship group and becomes more and more isolated and depressed.
  • 6. <ul><li>Treatments </li></ul><ul><li>The aim of cognitive therapy (CBT) is to challenge irrational thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Becks cognitive therapy </li></ul><ul><li>The therapist helps the client to identify particularly negative thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>The therapist challenges the negative thoughts by suggesting positive incidence. This is called reality testing. </li></ul><ul><li>The Behavioural component is in setting small achievable goals to boost self effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus of the therapy is in cognitive restructuring. </li></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>Ellis’ Rational-emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) </li></ul><ul><li>This approach is very similar to Beck’s and challenges irrational thoughts and maladaptive behaviour. Ellis believes that people maintain negative and self defeating beliefs by constantly telling themselves how inadequate they are or looking for confirmation of their inadequacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Client and therapist work together to identify situations that produce negative emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Therapist challenges these thoughts but is slightly more confrontational than in Ellis’ approach. </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>It is a structured approach that recognises that complex cognitive processes are important in psychological disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>It has proved to be an affective treatment for depression and social anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of schemata is rather vague and it is not clear about how irrational thoughts should be defined and measured. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes no account of biological or genetic factors. </li></ul><ul><li>It may be that some disorders lead to dysfunctional thinking rather than the other way round. </li></ul><ul><li>It could be that irrational thoughts are entirely rational and life circumstances need to be targeted. </li></ul>
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