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1. <ul><li>FarringtonSocial approachOffending familiesProspective longitudinal studySample?Nature/vs nurtureIntergenerational transmissionPersistors &…
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  • 1. <ul><li>FarringtonSocial approachOffending familiesProspective longitudinal studySample?Nature/vs nurtureIntergenerational transmissionPersistors & desistorsChronic offendersRisk factorsProtective factorsCriteria of life successEthics?SutherlandSocial approach Differential Association TheoryNine principlesCriminal behaviour is learnedInteraction with othersIntimate social groups; peersFavourable / unfavourableRepeated contact with criminalsRole of the media?Emphasis on peer groupTemporal validityIndividual / situational?Wikstrom & TafelSocial approachCross sectional2000 Year 10Interview & data collectionGender differences in offendingExplanatory factorsPropensity inducedLifestyle dependentSituationally limitedRainePhysiological ApproachReview articleAnti-social behaviourLow resting heart rateBirth complicationsPre frontal lobesImpulse controlPoor parentingDrinking /smoking in pregnancyReductionist or holisticEthics?Determinism or free will?BrunnerPhysiological Approach5 males NetherlandsCase studyBorderline mental retardationUrine samplesDisturbed MAOAPoint mutationSerotonin metabolismPhenotypeDeterminism or free will?Reductionism or holism?GeneralisabilityDaly & WilsonPhysiological ApproachMales take more risksChicago life expectancyCorrelational studyPolice records; population censusPredictorAbsenteeism from schoolEvolutionary advantageNeighbourhood specific homicide ratesEthics?Nature / nurture?Determinism or free will?KohlbergCognitive approachPiaget58 boys Chicago Interviews & moral dilemmasHeinz dilemmaCross cultural EthnocentrismPre conventionalConventionalPost conventionalYochelson & SamenowCognitive approach255 males including those NGRIInterviews over 16 years52 thinking errorsMens rea; actus reusSubject attritionSocial desirability biasLack of control groupPsychodynamic approachGudjohnnson & BownesCognitive approachAttributionsBlame Attribution InventoryInternal/ external attributionsMental elementGuilt80 criminals Northern IrelandViolent offendersPaedophilesSexual assaultNo major differencesNorthern Irish make more external attributions
  • 2. Wikstrom & Tafel- NeighbourhoodsMost disadvantaged 5% are 100 times more likely to have problemsSome neighbourhoods vandalism, shoplifting etc are endemicNeighbourhood factors include ethnicity and povertySocial class; truancy; parental monitoring; Dispositional factors eg place in familySelf control & moralityYoung people with multiple risk factors at greater riskAlienates young people from mainstreamMales more likely offendersSutherland – Learning from OthersLearning from others rooted in behaviourismNormal learning processes apply to crimeClassical conditioning- associationOperant conditioning rewards crimeSocial learning theory – imitation & role modellingNurture not naturePeer group most important Group we mix with criminal attitudesExplains street gangsYoung people & groupsFarrington – Disrupted FamiliesInfluence of families, friends etcNurture not natureNo single factor but multi-factorialRisk factors in families criminal fathers; young mothers etcStarting crime early  long termSome males chronic offendersCriteria of life success = no drugs, good mental health etcEarly intervention might help#Tackling employment; poverty; poor child rearing; impulsivity; school performanceTarget under 10 year oldsDaly & Wilson - GenderDarwin’s evolutionary theory suggests survival of fittestRisk taking may be an adaptive behaviour & could explain why males commit more crimes than femalesMales may be specialised to be more competitiveMales underestimates risk and overestimate abilityCould be linked to mate choice – men have to win femalesNow males have short time horizonsImmediate gratification not long term males being involved in more crimeBrunner – Genes & SerotoninGenetics = inheritance of crimeXYY supermale syndrome over represented in prisonsGenetics involvement in crime investigated by twin studies concordance of 52% in monozygoticProblems with this raised in same environmentAdoption studies similar correlationsGenetic abnormality in one familyImpulsive aggression linked to deficit of MAOA – point mutation in X chromosomeSerotonin regulates aggression impaired MAOA affects thisRaine – Brain DysfunctionBiological explanations genes, neuro-chemistry, neuro-anatomy, evolutionBiological pre-disposition for crimeBrain tumours in frontal lobe have been linked to crime – lack of controlTestosterone; adrenaline may be linked to criminal behaviourInvestigate brain dysfunction through MRI or PET scans-impulse controlBrain imaging studies show low resting heart rate is a good predictorAdolescent brain still forming 20sBirth complications affect brainCan biology be changed?Determinism vs freewillGudjohnnson & Bownes Social CognitionSocial cognition is thinking about othersCan be influenced by people around usWhat is a criminal thinking when they commit a crimeCriminals have intrapersonal personal (within groups)Interpersonal (between groups)Understanding thinking can help with crime preventionDo criminals weigh up cost/ benefits; is crime rational choice?Criminals make faulty attributions of blameFAE helps criminals to reduce their feelings of guiltYochelson & Samenow- ThinkingDifficult to find out how people thinkInsight into thinking through self reportCriminals thinking may be flawedSome criminals may be NGFRICriminals seek excitement, often restless; lack empathy; poor decisionsCriminal thinking errors anti social personalitiesThinking errors are not unique to criminals but more often displayedPsychopaths from one particular type of criminal thinking patternGrandiose, arrogant, difficult to treatCriminals problems are cognitiveKohlberg – Moral DevptCognition is about mental processesMust be differences in way criminals thinkMorality is about knowing right from wrongUsually learned through socialisationIn UK age for this is 10 – topical; should it be higher?Low levels of morality linked to crimeYoungsters behave through fear of punishmentMorality develops with ageImmature thinking linked to moralityKohlberg’s stages can be applied
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