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1. Debates 2. Nature vs Nurture 3. Nature or Nurture? Watch this Watch this 4. Ask your self… <ul><li>… how much of you is due to nature and how much to…
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  • 1. Debates
  • 2. Nature vs Nurture
  • 3. Nature or Nurture? Watch this Watch this
  • 4. Ask your self… <ul><li>… how much of you is due to nature and how much to nurture? </li></ul>
  • 5. Nature Nurture <ul><li>Genes Environment </li></ul>Influences that occur outside the individual Post-natal influences Influences that affect individual who is passively shaped by them Could be split into biological and psychological environment
  • 6. Nature and Nurture Interacting <ul><li>More sensible to think of nature and nurture interacting </li></ul>e.g. reactive-gene environments
  • 7. <ul><li>Watch this (bear in mind how you need to apply the nature/nurture debate to topics </li></ul>
  • 8. Tasks <ul><li>Add some evaluation points to p4 </li></ul><ul><li>Do the essay plan task, pp. 4-6 </li></ul>
  • 9. A Nature/Nurture Essay Using Gender <ul><li>Nature… </li></ul>
  • 10. Biological Explanations NATURE <ul><li>Genotype differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Females genotype: XX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male genotype: XY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. the influence of sex hormones on the development of the brain & body prenatally & at puberty </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. NATURE <ul><li>Sex chromosomes influence the production of hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>Males more androgens – i.e. testosterone secreted by testes </li></ul><ul><li>Females more oestrogen & progesterone – i.e. secreted by ovaries </li></ul>Key Study – Diamond (Follow-up to Money -Brenda
  • 12. Learning Theory Explanations NURTURE <ul><li>Social Learning Theory – explanation of learning developed by Albert Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>Freud’s concept of identification (imitation) with the aggressor </li></ul><ul><li>Role of cognition (thinking) </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>One of the foremost proponents of this theory suggests that we learn through observing the behs of others & seeing the results of their beh </li></ul><ul><li>This is called observational learning ( modelling ) </li></ul><ul><li>The person whose beh is observed & imitated is known as the model – (social beh is learned through modelling) </li></ul>
  • 14. suggested there were 3 main sources of models: FAMILY SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT MEDIA
  • 15. <ul><li>Bobo doll expt </li></ul>Key Study –Money -Brenda
  • 16. Evaluating nature-nurture specifically with regards to Gender <ul><li>??????????????????????????????????? </li></ul>
  • 17. <ul><li>Watch this… </li></ul>Free Will and Determinism
  • 18. Free Will and Determinism <ul><li>We choose our Our behaviour is behaviour caused by something </li></ul>
  • 19. Determinism (Nature/nurture basically, innit?!) Biological Environmental
  • 20. <ul><li>Do the tasks on p. 9 </li></ul>
  • 21. Free Will? <ul><li>Client-Centred Therapy implies Free Will because: </li></ul><ul><li>Clients choose to see themselves differently </li></ul><ul><li>Clients choose to see their circumstances differently </li></ul><ul><li>Clients are able to escape cruel and aggressive impulses </li></ul>
  • 22. Soft Determinism <ul><li>A cop-out by Rogers? </li></ul>
  • 23. Soft Determinism <ul><li>A fully functioning person </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>freely chooses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>that which is </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>absolutely determined </li></ul></ul></ul>SD basically says that if we believe we have consciously chosen an action , then essentially that is free will (even if there are actually causal factors that determined that choice ‘behind the scenes’ – i.e. that led-up to that ‘free choice’).
  • 24. Keen Beans, Clever Trevors, Able Mabels… <ul><li>… an extra evaluation point. </li></ul>Whether we call ‘our choice of action’ free will or soft determinism is actually just a case of semantics. I.e. both explanations are talking about the same thing, but from a different angle.
  • 25. <ul><li>Do the gap-fill on p.11 </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a spider diagram of all 5 perspectives and illustrate on it what each has to say on FW/Det. Include evaluation if you can </li></ul>
  • 26. <ul><li>Plan an answer to these two questions: </li></ul>Discuss the free will and determinism debate. Refer to at least one topic you have studied (12 marks) Discuss the free will and determinism debate. Refer to two perspectives you have studied (12 marks)
  • 27. Holism and Reductionism Study the interaction of various aspects/explanations of behaviour? Break behaviour down into small components and study them individually?
  • 28. Holism (a.k.a. Interactionism) <ul><li>It’s meaningful to study the way that different individual components of a person interact. </li></ul>The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
  • 29. Say what each level might be for an explanation of mood disorders. LEVEL OF EXPLANATION HOLISTIC REDUCTIONIST Societal, etc. Social Psychological Psychological Physical and physiological systems Physiological units Basic physiological components
  • 30. Reductionism 1. Person 2. Thought processes 3. Thoughts related to mood 4. Faulty neurotransmitters 4. Faulty genes
  • 31. <ul><li>A reductionist explanation doesn’t always have be a ‘low’ one. </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce is just to ‘ignore’ other explanations. So, all perspectives are reductionist in some way… </li></ul>
  • 32. But this tortoise-human fella… Says his perspective is holistic…(see p.16)
  • 33. Stuff to do: <ul><li>Gaps on pp. 13 &14 </li></ul><ul><li>Read/highlight/underline in blood evaluation points </li></ul><ul><li>Do p.15 </li></ul><ul><li>Answer q’s on p.16 </li></ul>
  • 34. Idiographic vs Nomothetic Work through all activities, pp.17-20. Add this q. to the ones on p.19: “ Using memory as a topic, show why idiographic and nomothetic research methods are both useful to understand behaviour”. <ul><li>Individual </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Methods like case studies and the Q-Sort </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on similarities </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Methods = experiments </li></ul>
  • 35. Mind-Body Debate <ul><ul><li>This is concerned with the existence or relationship between the mind and the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. are they both the same thing or are they different things? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And if they are different, how to do they interact? </li></ul></ul>
  • 36. Why is it an important debate? <ul><li>If we accept that the mind can be reduced down to the functioning of the brain (i.e. that mind and body are the same thing ) it eliminates the role of Psychology as a separate discipline from Biology. </li></ul>
  • 37. Why is it an important debate? <ul><li>If we accept that consciousness (mind) is an emergent property of the brain (i.e that mind and brain are different things ) then we are ensuring the role of Psychology in understanding behaviour and psychological characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  • 38. Two Types of Theory <ul><li>Dualism Monism </li></ul>Mind and body are two different ‘things’ Only mind or body exists – mind and body are the same thing
  • 39. Dualism Descartes’ view Mind can affect brain Mind Brain Interactionism Mind can affect brain and brain can affect mind Mind Brain Epiphenomenalism Brain can affect mind Mind Brain Psychophysical parallelism Neither brain nor mind can affect each other – there is only a correlational relationship between the two Mind Brain
  • 40. <ul><li>Do the following examples involve interactions between the mind and the brain, if so in what direction(s)? </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of psychoactive drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical stimulation of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Placebo effects </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing a snake and feeling frightened </li></ul>
  • 41. Monism - o nly mind or body exists – mind and body are the same thing Only mental events are real. The physical world is an illusion “ You, your joys and your sorrows, your sense of free will are in fact no more than the behaviour of a vast assembly of nerve cells and molecules”. <ul><li>Mentalism </li></ul>2. Materialism a) Peripheral Materialism b) Centralist Materialism The mind can be reduced to behaviours and the language we use gives the ‘impression of a mind’ A person’s consciousness correlates exactly with their brain activity – the mind is just the operation of physical processes
  • 42. Say what mind-body argument these two perspectives would take (you could argue that the biological fits with two different mind-body arguments)… Fits with the______mind-body argument Because… Behaviourist Perspective Biological Perspective
  • 43. The Dualism Song (To Tune of Cum By Ya) <ul><li>Descartes said again, </li></ul><ul><li>The mind affects the brain, </li></ul><ul><li>Interactionists say, </li></ul><ul><li>The effect’s both ways, </li></ul><ul><li>Brain causing mind, </li></ul><ul><li>It’s easy to see, </li></ul><ul><li>Is explained by epiphenomenology. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>One last thing, </li></ul><ul><li>And something of a schism, </li></ul><ul><li>Neither affecting either’s, </li></ul><ul><li>Psychophysical parallelism. </li></ul>
  • 44. The Monism Song (To The Tune of The Whole World in His Hands   <ul><li>Mentalism you will find, </li></ul><ul><li>The whole wide world is in your mind, </li></ul><ul><li>Materialism you will see, </li></ul><ul><li>Has two types, A and B. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Materialism, let’s just savour, </li></ul><ul><li>Says the mind can be reduced to behaviour, </li></ul><ul><li>Centralist Materialism has the claim, </li></ul><ul><li>The mind correlates exactly with the brain. </li></ul>
  • 45. <ul><li>Applying all debates to topics/perspectives </li></ul>
  • 46. Question Structure <ul><li>a, b and c (4, 4, 12) </li></ul><ul><li>40 mins to answer all 3 (2 hour paper in total) </li></ul><ul><li>So, 2 mins approx per mark – 20-25 mins to spend on c </li></ul>
  • 47. Question Types <ul><li>a and b are mostly definitions and/or strengths and weaknesses questions </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes asked to apply to a topic in a and b </li></ul>
  • 48. Question Types <ul><li>Either ask you to apply debate to topics or to perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>To date, 8 out of 10 exams have been applying to topics </li></ul><ul><li>Last exam was nature/nurture applied to topics </li></ul>Topics questions have never specified the topics. Perspectives questions have specified but they have chosen obvious examples
  • 49. Activities <ul><li>Look at all the part c’s on the past papers </li></ul><ul><li>Try and agree on a general structure you could use for all of them </li></ul>
  • 50. Activities <ul><li>Do a mind-map of all the debates… </li></ul>
  • 51. <ul><li>Nature-Nurture </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a topic (and evaluate) </li></ul><ul><li>One strength, one weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Free Will-Determinism </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a topic (and evaluate) </li></ul><ul><li>One strength, one weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Mind-Body </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a topic (and evaluate) </li></ul><ul><li>One strength, one weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Holism-Reductionism </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a topic (and evaluate) </li></ul><ul><li>One strength, one weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Idiographic-Nomothetic </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a topic (and evaluate) </li></ul><ul><li>One strength, one weakness </li></ul>
  • 52. <ul><li>Nature-Nurture </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a topic (and evaluate) </li></ul><ul><li>One strength, one weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Free Will-Determinism </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a topic (and evaluate) </li></ul><ul><li>One strength, one weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Holism-Reductionism </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a topic (and evaluate) </li></ul><ul><li>One strength, one weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Idiographic-Nomothetic </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a topic (and evaluate) </li></ul><ul><li>One strength, one weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Biology/genes vs Environment (psychological and biological) </li></ul><ul><li>Bio (nat), Behav (nurt)… </li></ul><ul><li>MDs/bipolar concordance rates MZ 72% DZ 14%...SO both imp – diathesis-stress </li></ul><ul><li>Nat + MZ/DZ studies, Nat – lack of 100%.. Nurt + lack of 100% in DZ… Nurt – behav not always reinforced… </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of behav vs caused by genes or envt </li></ul><ul><li>Hum (FW), Bio or behav (Det </li></ul><ul><li>FW (Client-Centred Therapy), Det (MDs/bipolar concordance rates MZ 72% DZ 14%...SO both imp – diathesis-stress </li></ul><ul><li>FW + ‘Seem to have it’, FW – Subjective. Det + Scientific, Det - Unfalsifiable </li></ul><ul><li>Individual vs generalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Hum (Idio), Bio or behav (Nom) COG FOR BOTH! </li></ul><ul><li>Idio (Client-Centred Therapy), Nomo (MDs/bipolar concordance rates MZ 72% DZ 14%...generalised… OR MEM FOR BOTH </li></ul><ul><li>Idio + Rich detail, Idio – Subjective. Nomo + Scientific, Det – Individual Diffs? </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction of parts vs one level </li></ul><ul><li>Hum (Hol), Bio or behav (Red) </li></ul><ul><li>Hol (MDs inc Diathesis-Stress), Red (MDs – catecholamine hypothesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Hol + ‘Whole greater than sum of its parts’, Hol – Diff to do. Red + ‘You, your joys…’, Red – misses complexity of influences </li></ul>You, your joys and your sorrows…are no more than the behaviour of nerve cells…
  • 53. <ul><li>Mind-Body </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Apply to a topic (and evaluate) </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness/mental processes vs brain activity </li></ul><ul><li>Bio (centralist materialism), behav (peripheral materialism) </li></ul><ul><li>MDs (effects of drugs on thoughts vs effects of thoughts on catecholamine levels) </li></ul>
  • 54. Activities <ul><li>Look at the model answers </li></ul><ul><li>Do they follow the structure you suggested? </li></ul><ul><li>If not, what is the structure? </li></ul>
  • 55. Using the models as a guide <ul><li>Write a detailed plan/full answer for: </li></ul>Describe and discuss the holism/reductionism debate. Refer to two perspectives you have studied (12) Describe and discuss the idiographic/nomothetic debate. Refer to two perspectives you have studied (12)
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