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1. Synopticity A2 2. A2 – synoptic <ul><li>Synopticity means to show that you have a broad view of psychology </li></ul><ul><li>This…
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  • 1. Synopticity A2
  • 2. A2 – synoptic <ul><li>Synopticity means to show that you have a broad view of psychology </li></ul><ul><li>This can be done by linking across the specification </li></ul><ul><li>Link between topics that share a similar idea or theme </li></ul><ul><li>As well as using common threads for each explanation/theory </li></ul>
  • 3. How can we be synoptic? <ul><li>Theory and evaluation – can be general </li></ul><ul><li>Extend these ideas </li></ul><ul><li>we link between approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Use one approach against another </li></ul><ul><li>Think about nature/nurture </li></ul><ul><li>Look to see if the behaviour is totally manipulated </li></ul><ul><li>Look at ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the research method </li></ul><ul><li>It will become second nature </li></ul>
  • 4. Approaches - general <ul><li>Behaviourism </li></ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Humantisic </li></ul><ul><li>If we have an understanding of each approach, we can use one approach to evaluate another. </li></ul>
  • 5. Approaches: example <ul><li>The social learning approach suggests that aggression is learned behaviour imitated from a model, but this does not take into account an individual’s hormones working such as a high level of testosterone that could affect a persons level of aggression. It could also be suggested that this person is pre-disposed to aggression and that the environmental event triggers it off – diathesis stress model. </li></ul>
  • 6. Issues and debates <ul><li>Cannot ignore issues such as gender, ethics, animal ethics and culture. These can affect the behaviour of the person, or we can forget to apply certain ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Also we need to look at the big psychological picture of the argument – some things need to be debated about – nature/nurture, whether the method is truly scientific, can we falsify it? </li></ul>
  • 7. Issues: <ul><li>Gender bias </li></ul>BETA BIAS - Some experiments have just been carried out on men, and then have been generalised to all genders assuming they are the same – eg Milgram’s experiment. Research within stress found differences between the genders. ALPHA-BIAS – some theories suggest that one gender is better than the other – such as Freud who suggests that women were less morally developed than men. Women can multi-task and men can’t.
  • 8. Ethical issues: <ul><li>What ethical issues did you do in AS? </li></ul><ul><li>Now also need to think about whether the research is socially sensitive or not. </li></ul><ul><li>Should the research be avoided because of potential social consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>It can marginalise groups – interviews with same sex relationships, or religions, race etc. </li></ul>
  • 9. Cultural bias: <ul><li>Some explanations assume that because one culture acts in a certain way, that it can be generalised across all cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Western world ( individualistic ) </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern countries ( collectivist ) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg research on what causes depression tends to be very western influenced, assuming that depression is the same across all cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Because research can be represented as universal it shows a BETA bias. </li></ul><ul><li>ETHNOCENTRISM (alpha bias) – is when we suggest that behaviour from our culture is ‘normal’ or superior whilst other groups are seen as strange or deviant. EG old experiment about white people being seen as more intelligent than black americans. The questionnaire showed lack of validity as some of the questions related to cultural differences. </li></ul>
  • 10. Animals and research <ul><li>Is it morally right? </li></ul><ul><li>Versus scientific ideals of what we can find out. </li></ul><ul><li>Does the end justify the means? </li></ul><ul><li>Think about within sleeping, experiments carried out on animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalistic vs experimentation? </li></ul>
  • 11. Debates: easy! <ul><li>Free will and determinism </li></ul><ul><li>Reductionism </li></ul><ul><li>Nature/nurture </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology as a science </li></ul>
  • 12. Free will and determinism <ul><li>Free will – does the approach being discussed mean that it lacks a person being able to make their own decisions and act on their own ideas. True free will theories are generally humanistic. </li></ul><ul><li>Determinism – the approach suggests that a person is not doing something of their own free will but the behaviour has been shaped or controlled by internal/external forces. Such approaches can be biological, behaviourist. </li></ul>
  • 13. Reductionism <ul><li>When a seemingly complex idea has been broken down into something more simple. Psychologists will argue that it has to be broken down in order to understand it. </li></ul><ul><li>Such examples can be found with multi store model of memory, this is reductionist as it suggests that our memory is broken into 3 parts and does not take into account more complex structures and our ability to learn new information contextually. </li></ul>
  • 14. Nature/nurture debate <ul><li>Is people’s behaviour due to the fact that they are born that way (ie genetics) and that they have appeared through maturation – this could then suggest that the behaviour is deterministic. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuture – product of the environment – that we learn our behaviour and that the environment, other people help determine our behaviour. </li></ul>
  • 15. Scientific method <ul><li>Comment on the scientific method used. </li></ul><ul><li>How scientific is it? </li></ul><ul><li>If it is an experiment (lab) does it have validity, reliability? Good control? Nomethic approach which is concerned with general laws of behaviour which is the goal of the scientific approach </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative methods tend to use the idiographic approach – unique insights into individuals, does it have good validity, is it scientific? </li></ul><ul><li>Need to comment about demand characteristics, social desirability bias. </li></ul><ul><li>Imposed etic – ways that psychologists study in western world are quite often imposed in other cultures such as indigenous cultures therefore making them culturally biased. </li></ul>
  • 16. General <ul><li>General thread across the areas of synopticity </li></ul><ul><li>Use your book – first few chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the general synoptic toolkit handout as a checklist? </li></ul>
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