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1. Methodology of the Behaviourist Approach<br /> 2. The Behaviourist Approach<br />Think back to last week. What experiments can you remember?<br…
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  • 1. Methodology of the Behaviourist Approach<br />
  • 2. The Behaviourist Approach<br />Think back to last week. What experiments can you remember?<br />Much of the research in the behaviourist approach come from laboratory studies, either with humans or with animals. <br />
  • 3. Laboratory Studies<br />What are they?<br />The researcher deliberately manipulates the independent variable to see the effect on the dependent variable.<br />The researcher has control over the environment. <br />Independent variable<br />What the experimenter has control over and manipulates<br />Dependent variable<br />What is affected by the independent variable and measured<br />
  • 4. Laboratory Studies<br />Examples of Lab experiment in the Behaviourist approach involving humans<br />Watson and Rayner (1920)<br />Bandura (1961)<br />We will look in more detail at laboratory experiments with humans when we do the cognitive approach. <br />
  • 5. What experiments in the behaviourist approach use animals?<br />Animal Studies<br />
  • 6. Animal Studies<br />What do you think should go in the blanks?<br />According to the American Psychological Association, ___% of all psychological research involves the use of animals.<br />90% of research involving animals uses ________ and _____. <br />__ % of animals used are primates.<br />8<br />rodents<br />birds<br />5<br />
  • 7. Why use animals?<br />Why are animals used in psychological research?<br />Animals are used when it would be impractical or unethical to use human participants<br />
  • 8. Animal Studies<br />With the person sat next to you, write down as many pros and cons about using animals in psychological experiments as you can.<br />Think about ethical and practical issues.<br />Switch with the people next to you<br />
  • 9. Ethical Reasons for animal studies<br />Ethically, experiments can be carried out on animals that cannot be carried out on humans<br />Often in psychological experiments (particularly in behaviourism) the animals come to no harm and are not put under any stress<br />The knowledge obtained may also improve the lives of the species being tested on. <br />There are strict guidelines regarding the conditions animals need to be kept in. <br />
  • 10. Practical Reasons for using animals<br />Animals are small and fairly easy to handle<br />Some animals breed quickly<br />Animals can learn something new, which it is fairly certain that they have not experienced before, so learning is testable.<br />Lab studies mean strict controls; objectivity can be achieved<br />Animals will not experience demand characteristics<br />
  • 11. Practical reasons for using animals<br />Darwin’s ideas about evolution suggest that animals could be studied and the findings can be applied to humans<br />Measurable stimuli and responses can be isolated from other experiences<br />Experiments are fairly easy to repeat and quite cheap (more animals can be obtained)<br />
  • 12. Ethical reasons not to use animals<br />Ethically, the rights of animals must be acknowledged<br />Animals should be treated ethically . They are not sufficiently different from humans to be treated as objects<br />Procedures may cause stress to the animals involved<br />Animals can not give consent to take part in an experiment.<br />Animals are kept in artificial conditions and are often made to behave in unnatural ways. <br />
  • 13. Practical Reasons not to use animals<br />Human lives are complex and events rarely occur in isolation<br />There are brain and genetic differences between humans and animals so generalisation is difficult<br />It is not certain that animal learning is the same as human learning<br />There could be other factors involved rather than the stimulus-response situation set up by the experimenter<br />
  • 14. Practical Reasons not to use animals<br />Animas do not have the same emotional response as humans, which might affect generalisation of the findings to humans.<br />Animals are different from each other and respond differently to different stimuli – can you compare monkeys and rats?<br />Lab studies are not natural so the findings may not be valid<br />
  • 15. You are the head of the psychology research department at a university. Some of your students are about to conduct research using animals.<br />What 3 rules would you insist that they follow?<br />Ethical Guidelines<br />
  • 16. Ethical Guidelines <br />The Experimental Psychology Society (1986)<br />Minimise stress and suffering for all animals<br />Always consider the possibility of other options to animal research<br />Be as economical as possible in the number of animals used<br />
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