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1. WHAT IS CRIME? 2. BY THE END OF THIS LESSON YOU… <ul><li>SHOULD BE ABLE TO </li></ul><ul><li>Outline what is meant by Crime…
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  • 2. BY THE END OF THIS LESSON YOU… <ul><li>SHOULD BE ABLE TO </li></ul><ul><li>Outline what is meant by Crime </li></ul><ul><li>COULD BE ABLE TO </li></ul><ul><li>Explain reasons why it is difficult to define and measure crime </li></ul>
  • 3. Crime is…… <ul><li>In pairs write a definition of crime </li></ul>
  • 4. IS THIS CRIMINAL? Growing drugs for your own use Male homosexual behaviour Fox hunting Euthanasia Abortion Smacking Incest War rape
  • 5. Is crime a matter of opinion? <ul><li>Social norms change over time </li></ul><ul><li>Legal crimes reflect social norms and values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homosexuality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women in bars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing a stamp upside down on an envelope </li></ul></ul>Do you know anymore
  • 6. What are the criminal trends are here? Crimes recorded by the police, 1876–2000. Source: Maguire, 1997, p. 158 ;
  • 7. THE PROBLEM WITH STATISTICS <ul><li>They only count the number of acts rather than the number of criminals </li></ul><ul><li>Some people aren’t aware that they are victims and therefore don’t report it </li></ul><ul><li>Victims do not report crime for a variety of reasons. Why not? </li></ul>write down as many reasons you can think of
  • 8. What does a criminal look like? <ul><li>Draw a picture of what you think a typical criminal looks like </li></ul>
  • 9. Lombroso's (1876) theory of CRIMINOLOGY suggests that criminality is inherited and that someone &quot;born criminal&quot;' could be identified by the way they look MEET LOMBROSO Compare the features of your criminal with someone else’s. What do you have in common?
  • 10. Biological Determinism (what we are born with due to inheritance) <ul><li>large jaw, forward projection of jaw, </li></ul><ul><li>low sloping foreheads </li></ul><ul><li>High cheekbones, </li></ul><ul><li>flattened or upturned nose </li></ul><ul><li>handle-shaped ears </li></ul><ul><li>large chins, very prominent in appearance </li></ul><ul><li>hawk-like noses or fleshy lips </li></ul><ul><li>hard shifty eyes, </li></ul><ul><li>scanty beard or baldness </li></ul><ul><li>insensitivity to pain, </li></ul><ul><li>long arms </li></ul>
  • 11. William Sheldon 1942 suggests mesomorphs are linked to criminal behaviour – why do you think this is so? <ul><li>Mesomorph : characterized by large bones, solid torso, low fat levels, wide shoulders with a narrow waist. </li></ul>Ectomorph : characterized by long and thin muscles/limbs and low fat storage; receding chin, usually referred to as slim . Endomorph : characterized by increased fat storage, a wide waist and a large bone structure.
  • 12. To what extent do these fit Lombrosos’ and/or Sheldon’s profile?
  • 13. What do you think - Male or female?
  • 14. Time of day affects your perception too <ul><li>Same Person but each photo has been digitally altered by adjusting the light and dark places in the image, which makes one face look like a boy's and the other a girl's. </li></ul>Courtesy of Richard Russell of Harvard University Isn't learning fun?
  • 15. Are criminals born or made? <ul><li>1. What system does the British Justice system adopt? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Complete the questionnaire ‘What is Crime?’ </li></ul>
  • 16. SUMMARY <ul><li>Crime is not an easy concept to define </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on factors such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TIME and CULTURE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Crime is difficult to measure because it relies on accurate recording and measuring </li></ul>A criminal act is any behaviour that violates social norms, religious beliefs or legal boundaries
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