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1. Functions of paranormal and related beliefs including cultural significance <br />(what do we gain by believing?)<br /><ul><li>Coping with…
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  • 1. Functions of paranormal and related beliefs including cultural significance <br />(what do we gain by believing?)<br /><ul><li>Coping with childhood difficulties</li></ul>Fantasy Proneness – Psychodynamic Explanation<br />Rogers (07) – looked at attachment style, loneliness and paranormal beliefs and childhood trauma. Used 250 participants from a range of backgrounds. Found that the strongest predictor of paranormal beliefs was childhood trauma. In addition proneness to fantasy and loneliness were also predictors. There was a trend that insecurely attached individuals were more prone to paranormal beliefs but the data suggested this wasn’t the cause. <br />What would be the psychodynamic explanation of this?<br />Locus of control<br />Watts, Watson and Wilson (2007) – 127 students at university of Edinburgh given questionnaires on paranormal beliefs and perceived childhood control. Results were that as belief in paranormal increased, perceived childhood control decreased. Link between paranormal experiences and locus of control did not quite reach significance. <br />Irwin (92) – believers were rated by independent observers as more controlling and assertive towards others. <br /><ul><li>Creates social unity and acts as a stabiliser</li></ul>Describe in own words why having a paranormal belief might act as a social stabiliser?<br />Peltzer (02) – Studied _____________ ______________ _______________ students and found that their paranormal beliefs acted as motivator and ________________________ particularly during times of oppression such as _____________________.<br />Pick a previous piece of evidence you can cross reference with this __________________________<br /><ul><li>Used as a form of social control</li></ul>Cultural Relativism:<br />Irwin (93) – reviewed and commented on a group of studies using Louisiana university students as the standardised group for the paranormal belief scale. <br /><ul><li>Finish low in witchcraft but high in ESP and PK
  • 2. Polish stronger beliefs in spiritualism and pre-cognition
  • 3. Australianslower belief in witchcraft and higher in ET</li></ul>Check in your books. <br />Roe (01) near death experiences<br /><ul><li>Hindus’ don’t report seeing God or Christ
  • 4. Christians do not report seeing a Hindu Deity</li></ul>Blaisdell (02) – used the H_______________R_________________A________________ F_________________ to look at ______ different cultures and found links between cultural beliefs and beliefs in the afterlife. <br />Warring communities were more likely to _______________________________________________<br />Large communities were more likely to __________________________________________________<br />Deception and Self-deception<br />Give 2 ways that psychics employ deception<br />1.<br />2.<br />Reasons we self- deceive (match)<br />Evolutionary Explanationour desire to please and believe in what the other person is saying overwhelm our doubts<br />Psychodynamic ExplanationIt helps in survival if we can lie to other people (e.g. to impress a mate or competitor) and this is easier to do if we lie to ourselves. [Machiavellian Intelligence]<br />Cognitive ExplanationWe need to believe in certain things and thus repress information that does not fit with our beliefs.<br />Social Explanation Our brain processes all information in line with pre-existing beliefs and thus we mis-recall and misinterpret experiences. <br />Superstitions <br />BEHAVIOURAL<br />Skinner (superstition in the pigeon) – 1948 ________hungry pigeons were placed in skinner boxes for a just a few minutes each day and received food pellets every ___________ regardless. At the end of the conditioning phase the length of time between food __________ and _____/8 began to show repetitive behaviour between delivery of food pellets including _____________, ___________________________ and ___________________________________________. When gap was _____________________ again the pigeons exhibited frantic behaviours until food appeared. <br />COGNITIVE<br />Explanation 1 <br />Pick a piece of evidence and describe how it supports this theory<br />Give a piece of evidence that suggests that this theory is too simplistic (can come from anywhere)<br />PSYCHODYNAMIC<br />Summarise the Psychodynamic Explanation<br />Marmour – during the Electra/Oedipus the child gets angry with the same sex parent and represses this which creates anxiety which they resolve through certain behaviours (e.g. hitting wood 3 times). <br />What is the big problem with Freudian theory?<br />Coincidence<br />Explain below Watt’s explanations for coincidence<br />1.<br />2.<br />3.<br />Blackmore and Troscianko (85). 100 volunteers aged 12-67 years and got them to assess probability in coin tossing task and again the goats performed much better. <br />Strength of the studyWeakness of the study<br />Can Probability explain cultural differences in superstition?<br />
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