Slides

PsychExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

Description
1. Theories of Memory You need to know 2 theories of memory these are; 1. Levels of Processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972) 2. Reconstructive memory (Bartlett, 1932) 1.…
Categories
Published
of 4
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  • 1. Theories of Memory You need to know 2 theories of memory these are; 1. Levels of Processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972) 2. Reconstructive memory (Bartlett, 1932) 1. LEVELS OF PROCESSING (LOP) – CRAIK AND LOCKHART Memory depends on the LEVEL OF PROCESSING of information. SELECTIVE ATTENTION- Selective attention involves examining what we pay attention to, and why and how. Provide an example of selective memory ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… THE LEVELS-OF-PROCESSING FRAMEWORK FOR MEMORY Selective attention models require a central processor, which is an important element to the LOP. The central processor handles all types of perceptual information and determines how it is processed. No theory holds that humans have unlimited capacity for processing information. The LOP proposes the idea that information is either processed by repeating it in the same format (TYPE I PROCESSING or known as PRIMARY MEMORY) or is processed in different depths (TYPE II PROCESSING). C & L created a framework to explain memory, rather than a theory. They held that memory is a by-product of the processing that occurs when attending to information. C & L framework suggests that there are processing stages that are hierarchical in that there are different depths involved. Below is a diagram of the LOP framework; Perceptual Series of Levels of Enrichment Analysis Information Sensory matching Stages and pattern recognition Result of this perceptual analysis is the memory trace
  • 2. Type I processing or maintenance rehearsal means that we rehearse information in order to preserve it for a short time, but is unlikely to result in a strong memory being established. Shallow Processing – This takes two forms 1. Structural processing (appearance) which is when we encode only the physical qualities of something. E.g. the typeface of a word or how the letters look. 2. Phonemic processing – which is when we encode its sound. Shallow processing only involves maintenance rehearsal (repetition to help us hold something in the STM) and leads to fairly short-term retention of information. Type II processing or elaborative rehearsal refers to a deeper consideration of the information, often by giving it meaning, and is therefore more likely to result in a durable memory being formed. Deep Processing - This involves 3. Semantic processing, which happens when we encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words with similar meaning. Deep processing involves elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful analysis (e.g. images, thinking, associations etc.) of information and leads to better recall. For example, giving words a meaning or linking them with previous knowledge. Levels of processing: The idea that the way information is encoded affects how well it is remembered. The deeper the level of processing, the easier the information is to recall.
  • 3. Summary of the levels of processing framework; Feature Explanation Memory trace Comes with depth of processing or degree of elaboration. No depth of processing means no memory trace. Deeper analysis Leaves a more persistent memory trace. Rehearsal in primary Holds information but leaves no memory trace. memory When attention is diverted Information is lost at a rate that depends on the level of analysis EVIDENCE FOR THE LEVELS-OF-PROCESSING FRAMEWORK Hyde and Jenkins (1971) found; ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… What is intentional learning? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… What is incidental learning? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Craik and Tulving (1975) Aim: To investigate how deep and shallow processing affects memory recall. Method: Participants were presented with a series of 60 words about which they had to answer one of three questions. Some questions required the participants to process the word in a deep way (e.g. semantic) and others in a shallow way (e.g. structural and phonemic). For example: Structural / visual processing: ‘Is the word in capital letters or small letters? Phonemic / auditory processing: ‘Does the word rhyme with . . .?’ Semantic processing: ‘Does the word go in this sentence . . . . ? Participants were then given a long list of 180 words into which the original words had been mixed. They were asked to pick out the original words. Results: Participants recalled more words that were semantically processed compared to phonemically and visually processed words. Conclusion: Semantically processed words involve elaboration rehearsal and deep processing which results in more accurate recall. Phonemic and visually processed words involve shallow processing and less accurate recall.
  • 4. EVALUATION OF THE LEVELS-OR-PROCESSING FRAMEWORK Strengths Weaknesses Explain why revision works best if strategies are used to add meaning to the material (4 marks) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks