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  • 2. THE SYLLABUS - WHAT DOES IT SAY? <ul><li>Describe and evaluate two ways of treating offenders including: </li></ul><ul><li>- the token economy programme and one other. </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable examples: </li></ul><ul><li>- punishment </li></ul><ul><li>- anger management </li></ul><ul><li>- social skills training. </li></ul>
  • 3. ANGER MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Offenders can be treated using anger management programmes , which focus on people with aggressive behaviour that needs to be controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>Anger management in general uses strategies such as identifying what triggers anger and learning to control those triggers. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper eating regimes are suggested as well as relaxation techniques . </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to cope with different opinions from others is also important in the programme. </li></ul>
  • 4. <ul><li>Anger is considered a normal healthy response, but if it develops into rage that takes a person over, it is not healthy and puts a strain on the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Anger can trigger aggressive out-bursts which may lead to harming someone else. </li></ul><ul><li>Some offenders are put on anger management programmes as part of their treatment, because of the nature of the offence or because of personal characteristics . </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>The theory of anger as an outburst links to Freud’s ideas of negative emotions being locked away in the unconscious, only to burst out later. </li></ul><ul><li>Freud believed sport and other energetic activities could release such emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently there is more focus on what triggers the outburst of anger or aggression and how that trigger, often based on thought processes, can be changed. </li></ul><ul><li>Such anger is thought of as inappropriate thought patterns and reactions rather than outbursts. </li></ul>
  • 10. DO ANGER MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES WORK? <ul><li>Using the handout on Anger Management complete the table below: </li></ul>What do these studies tell us about the effectiveness of AMP’s? How else can we evaluate AMP’s? Are there any ethical/moral problems? Evidence FOR success of AMP’s Evidence AGAINST success of AMP’s
  • 11. STUDIES EVALUATING ANGER MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES <ul><li>Watt et al (1999) - Western Australia </li></ul><ul><li>violent male adult offenders on an anger management programme were compared with offenders on a waiting list, who acted as a control . </li></ul><ul><li>Two groups were measured in terms of anger knowledge , anger expression , observed aggressive behaviour and misconduct in prison . </li></ul><ul><li>The study found no special gain for the offenders on the AMP compared with the control, suggesting such programmes have no value for violent offenders. </li></ul>
  • 12. STRENGTHS OF ANGER MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES <ul><li>Studies show the success of anger management programmes from self report data , which are likely to be valid as they come from prisoners themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>The programmes focus on learning about triggers from angry episodes and give people the tools to control their anger in the future, so they should have long term benefits . </li></ul>
  • 13. WEAKNESSES OF ANGER MANAGEMENT <ul><li>The programmes do not include a discussion of morality or understanding from a victim’s point of view, which has been said to limit their success. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been claimed that they turn physical aggression into other ways of expressing aggression, such as verbal or emotional abuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies claiming success of the programmes use self report data, where prisoners might want to look good and say the groups were useful, or they might simply have enjoyed the sessions as a break from routine. </li></ul><ul><li>Many studies do not look further into the future to predict recidivism rates. </li></ul>
  • 14. POSSIBLE EXAM QUESTIONS <ul><li>Outline one way of treating offender behaviour. (3 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the use of one method of reducing offending behaviour other than token economies. (5 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>The probation service is looking into ways to treat offenders and reduce recidivism. They are using token economies but realise this treatment programme is limited in the extent to which they rehabilitate offenders and lower recidivism. Describe another way of treating prisoners and evaluate the usefulness of this programme. (12 marks) </li></ul>
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    Jul 23, 2017
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