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1. pb@ntu 2. pb@ntu Source 21 From the Daily Tabloid Psychosurgery is the attempt to change a persons behaviour or personality through operations on the brain. The…
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  • 2. pb@ntu Source 21 From the Daily Tabloid Psychosurgery is the attempt to change a persons behaviour or personality through operations on the brain. The following report appeared in the newspapers: "An argument is raging over the fate of notorious criminal 'Nobby' Norman. Norman was a ring leader in a recent prison riot, and is thought by Doctor Slicer to be a 'dangerous psychopath'. Consultant surgeon Sandra Slicer claims that her new form of psychosurgery will remove the evil elements from Norman and is asking for permission to try it. Norman is willing to undergo the operation because his sentence will then be reduced. Psychologist Priya Pavlov, however, says the operation is unlikely to be successful and could have serious unpleasant side effects. Another critic is the local MP, Arthur Crown, who says that Norman was protesting against the state of prison life. He says that Norman should not be seen as a psychopath just because he would not accept the bad conditions of prison life. 1 Describe ONE type of psychosurgery, and say what it tries to achieve.(3) 2 There are a number of practical AND ethical problems with psychosurgery. Describe ONE practical problem and ONE ethical problem with attempting the operation on Nobby Norman. Practical (2) Ethical (2)
  • 3. pb@ntu Source 22 "Know what I mean ‘arry?" Different areas of the brain are important in different behaviours. People whose brains are damaged sometimes become unable to do something that they had done before. The loss of certain behaviours is often connected to damage in particular areas of the brain. Although brain damage can occur in many ways, in at least one set of cases it is brought about through sport. In boxing the object of the fight is to 'knockout' the other person, which means making them unconscious through bruising the brain by repeated blows to the head. Over 350 boxers have died from these blows in the last 40 years. For the majority who survive, the repeated blows have an effect of causing general brain damage. Ex-boxers are likely to develop slurred speech, drooling, tremors, unsteady walking and some even develop psychiatric conditions. 1 According to the source, what are the long term effects of boxing? (1) 2 What is the main cause of these changes? (1) 3 The brain cortex is associated with the 'higher' mental functions. Describe ONE area of the cortex that is believed to have a special function, and say what that function is. (3) 4 The text also suggests that boxing caused long term changes in personality. Give another possible explanation for these changes in personality. (3)
  • 4. pb@ntu Source 23 You put your left leg in ... 1 Look at the list of brain functions below and write them into the appropriate box in the diagram. Control of left hand Information from right eye Language ability Spatial ability (for example, pattern recognition) Feelings of emotion Sensation of pain from right leg LEFT BRAIN BOTH SIDES OF RIGHT BRAIN BRAIN 2. The term 'localisation of function' refers to the idea that different parts of the brain have different functions. What methods have psychologists used to investigate the localised functions of the brain, and what are the problems in carrying out these investigations. HINT: You might like to identify three of more different methods that have been used, give examples of the findings, and suggest some practical or ethical problems with carrying out studies on the brain.
  • 5. pb@ntu Source 24 I'm In With The In-Crowd' In the classic conformity experiment by Asch, subjects were sat around a table and asked in turn to say which line from card A was the same length as the line on card B. CARD A CARD B Only one of the people at the table was a subject, the rest were confederates (stooges) of the experimenter. The confederates would all give the wrong answer and Asch wanted to know how many of the subjects would conform to the others and also give the wrong answer. The crosses represent seats at the table, and the numbers represent the order in which the people are asked to answer. 3 4 5 X X X 2 X X6 TABLE 1 X X7 1. What number chair would you put the subject in to get the greatest conformity? (1) 2. In a variation of the experiment, the confederate who was sitting in chair 2 did not agree with the majority. What effect do you think this had on the subject who was sitting in chair 6? (1) 3. Describe another study on conformity (4) 4. Not all subjects conform to the majority. Give THREE factors that would make people MORE likely to conform in your experiment or the Asch experiment. (3)
  • 6. pb@ntu Source 25 I did my job The following quote comes from one of the subjects who had just completed the famous experiment by Milgram. The subject had been asked to administer electric shocks of increasing intensity to a another man (called the learner) in an attempt to make him learn some word association pairs. "I had about eight more levers to pull and the learner was really hysterical in there and he was going to get the police and what not. So I called the professor three times. And the third time he said "Just continue", so I gave him the next shock. And then I don't hear no more answers from him, not a whimper or anything. I said, "Good God, he's dead; well, here we go, we'll finish him." And I just continued all the way through to 450 volts. "I really believed the man was dead until we opened the door. When I saw him, I said, "Great, this is great." But it wouldn't have bothered me to have found him dead. I believe that I conducted myself obediently, and carried on instructions as I always do. I did my job." 1. What reason does the subject give for continuing with the electric shocks? (1) 2. Why wouldn't the subject have been bothered if the learner had been killed by the experiment. (1) 3. The subject was instructed by someone (in this case, "the professor") to continue with the experiment. The fact that he was called "the professor" probably made the subject more likely to obey. Suggest THREE other features of this instructor that would make the subject more likely to obey. (3) 4. Some ethical criticisms are made of Milgram's study because he did not consider the effect his experiment might have on the subjects. Suggest ONE improvements that Milgram could have made to the design to answer his critics. (2) 5. Some psychologists say that people would not behave in real life in the way they behaved in the laboratory. Describe ONE piece of evidence that suggests that Milgram's results can be applied to real life situations. (3)
  • 7. pb@ntu Source 26 Eight out of ten owners said that their cats preferred it Psychologists designed a study to see whether they could influence the responses of students to a questionnaire by showing them some made up responses from other students. They asked two groups of subjects a simple question about GCSE Psychology. In condition A, the subjects were shown a sheet with a lot of ticks in the 'YES' box, and in condition B the subjects were shown a sheet with a lot of ticks in the 'NO' box. The responses of the students were recorded in the form of a bar chart. Condition A Condition B Do you think that Do you think that GCSE GCSE Psychology is Psychology is more more difficult than difficult than GCSE GCSE Maths? Maths? YES NO YES NO !!!! !!!! !!!! !!!! !!!! ! ! !!!! !!!! !!!! !!!! !!!! !!!! !!!! ! ! ! ! N STUDENT RESPONSES TO THE PROMTED QUESTION U M 16 B E 14 R 12 O 10 F 8 CONDITION A R 6 E CONDITION B S 4 P 2 O N 0 S YES NO E S PROMPT 1. In Condition A, how many students agreed with the majority of their colleagues? (1) 2. In the above study, the psychologists tried to make the subjects conform by making them believe that a lot a people held a particular opinion. This is referred to as a 'bogus majority'. Describe ONE example from everyday life where someone tries to make you conform by using a bogus majority. (2) 3. What would have happened to the level of conformity in the study in the source if the question had been about political opinions, for example "Do you think the government is doing a good job?" (2) 4. Describe ONE other study of conformity (4)
  • 8. pb@ntu Source 27 Judging distance A study by Vurpillot looked at the ability of children to spot changes in pictures. She would show a child a simple drawing of a scene. Then she would show the child a similar picture and ask him or her to spot the changes from the first picture. She recorded how many times the child correctly spotted the following changes a) Form (shape) of one of the features b) Position of one of the features c) Size of one of the features d) Missing objects ORIGINAL PICTURE TEST PICTURE The changes include; The house has moved (change in position) The fir tree has disappeared (missing object) The pond has changed shape (change in form) % 100 Position C Size o 90 Missing r r Shape e 80 c t 70 r e s 60 p o 50 n s e 40 s 4.5 5.5 7.5 Age (years) 1. What percentage of correct responses did 5´ year old children make to judgements of changes in size? (1) 2. What percentage of correct responses did 4´ year old children make to changes in position? (1) 3. Describe the differences in perceptual abilities of 4´ year olds and 7´ year olds shown by this study. (3)
  • 9. pb@ntu Source 28 Saharan Nightmare Last summer I was on holiday at the coast. One evening we stopped the car at one end of a very long sandy beach and could see a small harbour at the other end of the beach. I said that I would like to walk along the beach to the harbour but everyone else wanted to drive. So I said I would walk anyway, and because the harbour looked like it was a mile away, I said that I'd meet them in 20 minutes or so. When I set out to walk it, however, it took much longer. After half an hour the distant harbour appeared no bigger and just as far away as when I had set out. I eventually got there after 2 hours. 1. When I looked across the beach, I judged the distance of the harbour by its how big it looked. In other words, I used a depth cue of relative size. a) What error of perceptual judgement did I make? (1) b) Why do you think I made this error? (2) 2. Look at the picture below and identify FIVE visual cues that can be used to interpret depth (or distance). (5)
  • 10. pb@ntu Source 29 The War of the Ghosts In his famous study on remembering, Frederick Bartlett read people an old American Indian folk tale to remember called 'The War of the Ghosts'. Below are two short extracts from the story. The first extract is from the original story, and the second extract is from someone's recall of it. EXTRACT #1 'One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt seals, and while they were there it became foggy and calm. Then they heard war- cries, and they thought; "Maybe this is a war party." They escaped to the shore, and hid behind a log. Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise of paddles, and saw one canoe coming up to them. There were five men in the canoe.' EXTRACT #2 'Two young men from Egulac went out to hunt seals. They thought they heard war-cries and a little later they heard the noise of the paddling of canoes. One of these canoes, in which there were five natives, came forward towards them.' Bartlett suggested that people make a number of types of errors in the recall of stories. Two of the types of changes he described were; Omissions; where parts of the original story are left out Distortions; where parts of the story are changed to fit in the attitudes of the person recalling it. 1. From the source give ONE example of Omission in Extract 2 and ONE example of distortion. Omission (2) Distortion (2) 2. Some people suggest that memory operates like a tape recorder, accurately recording events. What do the changes in the story tell us about how we remember things? (2) 3. Describe how TWO other factors that will affect our recall of an event. (4)
  • 11. pb@ntu Source 30 Behavioural engineering 1 Take EACH ONE of the terms listed below and put them into the most appropriate box; either Classical Conditioning or Operant Conditioning. (6) reflex behaviour reward schedules of reinforcement Pavlov Skinner learnt fear in Little Albert Law of Effect shaping unconditioned stimulus aversion therapy time outs flooding CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OPERANT CONDITIONING 2. Describe ONE type of learning that can not be explained by operant or classical conditioning. (3)
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