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1. STRESS Access to Nursing 2. Scheme of Work Approaches to Stress Management Session 4: Physiology of Stress and Ill-health Session 3: Environmental and workplace…
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  • 1. STRESS Access to Nursing
  • 2. Scheme of Work Approaches to Stress Management Session 4: Physiology of Stress and Ill-health Session 3: Environmental and workplace stressors Session 2: Introduction to Stress and Job Burnout Session 1: link
  • 3. Unit Objectives <ul><li>Define stress </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate an understanding of stress as a bodily response </li></ul><ul><li>Show an awareness of models of stress </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise and demonstrate an understanding of the effects of stress </li></ul><ul><li>Observe and assess how psychological principles may be related to real-life situations </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the application of coping strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to plan apiece of coursework related to at least one of the areas of research covered </li></ul>
  • 4. Activity <ul><li>WHAT IS STRESS? </li></ul>
  • 5. What is Stress? <ul><li>HSE, 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>“ the reaction people have to excessive demands or pressures, arising when people try to cope with tasks, responsibilities or other types of pressures connected with their jobs but find difficulty, strain or worry in doing so” </li></ul>Lazarus (1966): “ stress occurs when an individual perceives that the demands of an external situation are beyond his or her perceived ability to cope with them&quot;.
  • 6. Symptoms of Stress <ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Poor decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Ill-Health </li></ul><ul><li>Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Memory problems </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Heart Disease </li></ul>
  • 7. Causes of Stress: Workplace <ul><li>Low income </li></ul><ul><li>Unstable job prospects </li></ul><ul><li>No long-term career </li></ul><ul><li>Routine, automated work </li></ul><ul><li>Low autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Long work hours </li></ul><ul><li>Pension uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of choice </li></ul>Schabracq & Cooper, 2000
  • 8. Cox’s Tripartite Model (1978)
  • 9. Stress: Positive or Negative? Performance-Stress Relationship Curve , which looks like an inverted “U”. At zero arousal, you have zero performance—which means that you’re either sleeping or meditating. At maximum arousal, you also have zero performance—here, you’re incapacitated by panic.
  • 10. Good or Bad?
  • 11. Life-Events: Activity Life-events can be significant sources of stress and difficult to adjust to Put the list of events in rank order starting with the MOST stressful.
  • 12. Life Change & Stress: the theory Significant change in life circumstances Need to adjust to new life circumstances Stress Illness Expect these two variables to correlate
  • 13. Measuring Life Change <ul><li>Holmes & Rahe(1967) </li></ul><ul><li>List of life changes rated (judged by a panel) for degree of readjustment required e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of spouse – high readjustment - 100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holiday – low readjustment - 13 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adding up scores for changes during a given period (6months) gives the LCU score </li></ul>
  • 14. Life Change and Stress <ul><li>Thomas et al (1997) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased LCU scores predicted increased mortality risk in heart patients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rosengren et al (1993) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher LCU scores associated with higher mortality in elderly PPs </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Life Change and Stress <ul><li>Individual differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of Life-Events likely to be mediated by e.g. personality, coping style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some events (e.g. divorce) may be perceived differently by different people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Correlational & retrospective data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do participants have an accurate recall of events/illnesses? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does being ill make certain Life-Events more likely? (is it a reverse cause and effect?) </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Personality and Stress Are some people more prone to the effects of stress than others?
  • 17. The Type A Personality <ul><li>Intense </li></ul><ul><li>Impatient </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely Competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphasic - doing too many things at once </li></ul><ul><li>Guilty about relaxing </li></ul><ul><li>Anger and Hostility at minor irritations </li></ul><ul><li>Low tolerance for ambiguity or uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Low tolerance for people perceived as less capable </li></ul>
  • 18. The Type B Personality <ul><li>Less intense </li></ul><ul><li>Able to relax when required </li></ul><ul><li>Allows others to complete their tasks to their own schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Never rushes </li></ul><ul><li>Carries out tasks sequentially </li></ul><ul><li>Has other interests other than work </li></ul><ul><li>Treats difficulties as challenges not problems </li></ul><ul><li>Generally regarded as ‘laid back’ </li></ul>
  • 19. Type A Research <ul><li>Type A is twice as likely to develop Coronary Heart Disease as Type B </li></ul><ul><li>(Friedman & Rosenmann, 1974) </li></ul>
  • 20. Workplace Stress and Job Burnout
  • 21. <ul><li>SECTION THREE </li></ul><ul><li>JOB BURNOUT </li></ul>
  • 22. The Employer’s Duty <ul><li>Health & Safety At Work Act (1974) </li></ul><ul><li>Employers must ensure that the workplace is safe and healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Employers are obliged to make suitable and sufficient assessments of the risks to an employee’s Health & Safety at work </li></ul>
  • 23. <ul><li>“ Work is…by its very nature, about violence…to the spirit as well as the body. It is about ulcers as well as accidents, about shouting matches as well as fist fights, about nervous breakdowns…about daily humiliations” </li></ul>Terkel c.1960
  • 25. Job Burnout <ul><li>Enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Stagnation </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation </li></ul>
  • 26. Costs of Stress <ul><li>Stress costs employers £370m a year </li></ul><ul><li>6.5m days lost to stress-related illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Half a million employees are suffering from ill-health due to stress-related conditions </li></ul><ul><li>As many as 33% absences are caused by stress-induced alcoholism </li></ul><ul><li>Employers have a duty under law to minimise the causes of work-related stress </li></ul>(HSE, 2001)
  • 27. Causes of Workplace Stress <ul><li>Work Underload </li></ul><ul><li>Work Overload </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of New Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty and Change </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Changing job role </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Peer/Social Support </li></ul><ul><li>Job Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Bullying and Conflict </li></ul>
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