Slides Shared Resource

1. Variables and the Experimental Method<br /> 2. influences<br />Independent Variable<br />Caffeine<br />Dependent Variable<br />Number of…
of 18
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
  • 1. Variables and the Experimental Method<br />
  • 2. influences<br />Independent Variable<br />Caffeine<br />Dependent Variable<br />Number of words recalled<br />2 Conditions<br />Timeof day<br />Tea/<br />Coffee<br />Extraneous<br />Variables<br />Noise<br />
  • 3. influences<br />Independent Variable<br />Caffeine<br />Dependent Variable<br />Number of words recalled<br />Confounding<br />Variable<br />Timeof day<br />Tea/<br />Coffee<br />Extraneous<br />Variables<br />Noise<br />
  • 4. Psychologists try to control extraneous variables so that they don’t become confounding variables.<br />This means experiments can show cause and effect.<br />
  • 5. influences<br />Independent Variable<br />Caffeine<br />Dependent Variable<br />Number of words recalled<br />All tested at 9 am<br />Timeof day<br />No caffeine drinks for 12 hours previously<br />These are <br />controls<br />Tea/<br />Coffee<br />Quiet environment used<br />Noise<br />
  • 6. Controls <br />There are 3 types of variables to control<br />
  • 7. Situational Variables<br />Participant Variables<br />Experimenter Variables<br />Time of day<br />Heat<br />Participant reactivity<br />Body language<br />Tone of voice<br />Age<br />Intelligence<br />Personality<br />Order Effects<br />Demand Characteristics<br />Bias<br />
  • 8. Participant Variables<br />
  • 9. Individual Differences<br />Age, gender, mood, background, ethnicity, IQ, personality, memory, beliefs, past experiences…………. <br />
  • 10. Controls for Individual Differences<br />Allocation<br />Sample<br />Randomly allocate to conditions<br />Sample large and randomly to gain representative samples<br />Design<br />Use Repeated Measures or Matched Pairs<br />
  • 11. Controls for Situational Variables <br />1. Standardise – keep everything the same for each participant<br />Standardised Procedure<br />Standardised Instructions<br />
  • 12. Controls for Situational Variables <br />2. Counterbalance – to reduce effect of situational variables or order effects<br />Split the group in half<br />Group 1 do condition 1 > 2<br />Group 2 do condition 2 > 1<br />This “balances” out any order effects. E.g. If you do better on the 2nd test, 50% will do better in Condition 1 and 50% do better in condition 2 <br />
  • 13. Demand Characteristics<br />refers to an experimental artefact where participants form an interpretation of the experiment's purpose and unconsciously change their behaviour accordingly<br />
  • 14. Controls for Demand Characteristics<br />Drug<br />Deception<br />Distractor questions<br />Single <br />Blind<br />Lying about the aim<br />The participant is unaware of which condition they’re in<br />Placebo<br />
  • 15. Experimenter Variables<br />The experimenter effect is a term used to describe subtle cues or signals from an experimenter that affect the performance of participants in studies. <br />The cues may be unconscious nonverbal cues, such as muscular tension or gestures. They may be vocal cues, such as tone of voice.<br />
  • 16. Experimenter Variables<br />My beliefs about what I’m studying can create bias. This could be subconsciously (or consciously). This is experimenter bias.<br />
  • 17. Controls for Experimenter Variables<br />Double<br />Blind<br />Inter-rater reliability<br />Neither the researcher or the participant knows which condition they are in<br />Independent raters rate same behaviour as researcher – check for agreement<br />
  • We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks