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1. Variables and the Experimental Method<br /> 2. influences<br />Independent Variable<br />Caffeine<br />Dependent Variable<br />Number of…
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  • 1. Variables and the Experimental Method<br />
  • 2. influences<br />Independent Variable<br />Caffeine<br />Dependent Variable<br />Number of words recalled<br />2 Conditions<br />Timeof day<br />Tea/<br />Coffee<br />Extraneous<br />Variables<br />Noise<br />
  • 3. influences<br />Independent Variable<br />Caffeine<br />Dependent Variable<br />Number of words recalled<br />Confounding<br />Variable<br />Timeof day<br />Tea/<br />Coffee<br />Extraneous<br />Variables<br />Noise<br />
  • 4. Psychologists try to control extraneous variables so that they don’t become confounding variables.<br />This means experiments can show cause and effect.<br />
  • 5. influences<br />Independent Variable<br />Caffeine<br />Dependent Variable<br />Number of words recalled<br />All tested at 9 am<br />Timeof day<br />No caffeine drinks for 12 hours previously<br />These are <br />controls<br />Tea/<br />Coffee<br />Quiet environment used<br />Noise<br />
  • 6. Controls <br />There are 3 types of variables to control<br />
  • 7. Situational Variables<br />Participant Variables<br />Experimenter Variables<br />Time of day<br />Heat<br />Participant reactivity<br />Body language<br />Tone of voice<br />Age<br />Intelligence<br />Personality<br />Order Effects<br />Demand Characteristics<br />Bias<br />
  • 8. Participant Variables<br />
  • 9. Individual Differences<br />Age, gender, mood, background, ethnicity, IQ, personality, memory, beliefs, past experiences…………. <br />
  • 10. Controls for Individual Differences<br />Allocation<br />Sample<br />Randomly allocate to conditions<br />Sample large and randomly to gain representative samples<br />Design<br />Use Repeated Measures or Matched Pairs<br />
  • 11. Controls for Situational Variables <br />1. Standardise – keep everything the same for each participant<br />Standardised Procedure<br />Standardised Instructions<br />
  • 12. Controls for Situational Variables <br />2. Counterbalance – to reduce effect of situational variables or order effects<br />Split the group in half<br />Group 1 do condition 1 > 2<br />Group 2 do condition 2 > 1<br />This “balances” out any order effects. E.g. If you do better on the 2nd test, 50% will do better in Condition 1 and 50% do better in condition 2 <br />
  • 13. Demand Characteristics<br />refers to an experimental artefact where participants form an interpretation of the experiment's purpose and unconsciously change their behaviour accordingly<br />
  • 14. Controls for Demand Characteristics<br />Drug<br />Deception<br />Distractor questions<br />Single <br />Blind<br />Lying about the aim<br />The participant is unaware of which condition they’re in<br />Placebo<br />
  • 15. Experimenter Variables<br />The experimenter effect is a term used to describe subtle cues or signals from an experimenter that affect the performance of participants in studies. <br />The cues may be unconscious nonverbal cues, such as muscular tension or gestures. They may be vocal cues, such as tone of voice.<br />
  • 16. Experimenter Variables<br />My beliefs about what I’m studying can create bias. This could be subconsciously (or consciously). This is experimenter bias.<br />
  • 17. Controls for Experimenter Variables<br />Double<br />Blind<br />Inter-rater reliability<br />Neither the researcher or the participant knows which condition they are in<br />Independent raters rate same behaviour as researcher – check for agreement<br />
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