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1. Registration The process by which information is taken into memoryRetrieval The process of getting information back from memory so it can be usedSTMA memory structure…
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  • 1. Registration The process by which information is taken into memoryRetrieval The process of getting information back from memory so it can be usedSTMA memory structure where information is stored whilst in useLTMA memory structure containing all the information that a person has learned7 +/- 2 chunksThe capacity of short-term memory18 secsThe approximate duration of STMSemantic The encoding strategy used by long-term memoryMulti-store A structural model of memory put forward by Atkinson and ShiffrinRehearsal The process of mental repetitionRecency effectA phenomenon whereby information presented last tends to be recalled betterPrimacy effectA phenomenon whereby information presented first tends to be recalled betterTrace decayA process of forgetting in short-term memory where information fades away because of disuseInterference A forgetting process in which new and previously stored information interact to prevent recallCue-dependentTerm describing memories that are better retrieved when a particular stimulus is presentContext cueRetrieval cue in the external environmentSchema A set of semantic information centreing on a commonly encountered object or situationReconstructive memoryThe process of rebuilding memories from schemas and encoded detailsLeading Questions that introduce the respondent to new informationMiller He established the capacity of STMPeterson and PetersonThe studied duration in STMBahrick et alThey used high school yearbook photosBaddeley He studied encoding in STM and LTMLoftus She asked people leading questionsGlanzer and CunitzThey used a serial position techniqueMnemonic A strategy to enhance memory recallWorking memoryA model which explains STM as a system consisting of multiple componentsCentral executiveThe key component of working memoryPhonological loopThis deals with auditory informationVisuo-spatial scratchpadThis deals with visual and/or spatial informationEpisodic bufferThis integrates information from the central executive, the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial scratchpad and also from long-term memoryEye-witness testimonyA legal term referring to the use of witnesses to give evidence in court regarding the identity of a person who has committed a crimeAnxiety An unpleasant emotional state which could be a factor which influences EWTWeapon-focus effectAn effect where witnesses focus of the central details of the attack, rather than more peripheral detailsOwn-age biasWhere people are typically better able to identify faces from their own ethnic groupCognitive interviewA police technique for interviewing witnesses to a crimeChange perspectiveA component of the cognitive interview in which interviewees are asked to recall the incident from different viewpointsMethod of lociA visual mnemonic whereby items to be recalled are mentally placed along a familiar routeChunking Dividing a long string of information into memorable piecesOrganisation Creating memory hooks and putting material in order<br />Mnemonic Leading 7 +/- 2Working memoryCue-dependentBaddeley LTMCentral executivePrimacy effectMiller Retrieval Semantic <br />SchemaLoftus Interference STMLevels of processingRegistration Phonological loopContext cueTrace decayMulti-storePeterson and PetersonGlanzer and Cunitz<br />Recency effectReconstructive memoryBahrick et alCue-dependentRegistration Visuo-spatial scratchpadSTMLoftus Peterson and PetersonEpisodic bufferEWTGlanzer and Cunitz<br />Working memoryMiller Peterson and PetersonEWTRetrieval Multi-storeAnxiety 7 +/- 2Loftus Interference Weapon focusLeading Own-age biasReconstructive memoryGlanzer and CunitzSemantic Baddeley 18 secsCognitive interviewPeterson and PetersonSchema Retrieval Rehearsal Change perspective<br />Method of lociChunking Organisation Registration Loftus Cue-dependent Schema Glanzer and CunitzLeading STM Miller Working memory<br />LTMContext cueMulti-storeBahrick et al Interference Mnemonic Central executiveGlanzer and CunitzPeterson and PetersonMiller Reconstructive memoryRecency effect<br />Phonological loopVisuo-spatial scratchpadContext cueOrganisation Leading Chunking 18 secsOwn-age biasRetrieval Bahrick et alMethod of lociCognitive interview<br />LTMPeterson and PetersonCue-dependentChange perspectiveLeading Schema Loftus 7 +/- 2Primacy effectBahrick et alWeapon focusEWTSTMAnxiety Loftus Context cueSemantic Episodic bufferTrace decayBaddeley Mnemonic`Working memoryMiller Recency effect<br />Primacy effectCentral executiveSemantic Registration LTMPhonological loopOrganisation Cognitive interviewMethod of lociRehearsal STMOwn-age bias<br />Recency effectBahrick et alSchema Retrieval Loftus Chunking Context cueChange perspectiveInterference Leading 18 secsWeapon focus<br />Registration Miller Multi-storeTrace decayVisuo-spatial scratchpadEWTEpisodic bufferMnemonic Baddeley Anxiety Reconstructive memoryCue-dependent <br />Working memoryMnemonic Primacy effectRetrieval Leading Schema Semantic Central executiveLTMOrganisation Anxiety EWT<br />7 +/- 2Phonological loopRegistration Weapon focusPrimacy effectRehearsal Visuo-spatial scratchpadEpisodic buffer18 secsBaddeley Context cueLoftus <br />Multi-storeOwn-age biasSTMCognitive interviewInterference Change perspectiveMethod of lociPeterson and PetersonRecency effectChunking Working memorySemantic <br />Central executiveEWTOrganisation Chunking Schema Trace decayMethod of lociAnxiety Phonological loopOwn-age biasRegistration Weapon focus<br />Retrieval Context cueSemantic Miller Visuo-spatial scratchpadSTMReconstructive memoryRecency effectEpisodic bufferMulti-storeLoftus Cognitive interview<br />Schema Change perspectiveMnemonic Registration Primacy effectWorking memoryCentral executive Organisation Anxiety Cognitive interviewLeading LTM<br />Phonological loopChunking EWTMulti-store Method of loci7 +/- 218 secsOwn-age biasRetrieval STMSemantic Rehearsal <br />Change perspective LTMWeapon focusBahrick et alVisuo-spatial scratchpadMethod of lociEpisodic bufferRegistration Recency effectMiller Leading Reconstructive memory<br />
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