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1. States which set of scores IV manipulated to observe Participant variables: will be better/faster, effect on DV, controlled. (GAMIE) gender. age, positively/negatively…
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  • 1. States which set of scores IV manipulated to observe Participant variables: will be better/faster, effect on DV, controlled. (GAMIE) gender. age, positively/negatively (+) Can draw causal conclusion. motivation, intelligence, correlated. Eg participants (+) Confounding variables experience. will do better on a test when minimized. Situational variables: (DO tested in the same room (+) Can be easily replicated. IT) where they were taught (-) Artificial, contrived Order effects rather than tested in a situation. Time of day, temperature, different room. (-) Investigator and participant noise. Used when previous research effects. Investigator effects, has suggested a direction. Demand characteristics States that there will be a Investigate causal relationships Features of an experiment difference/relationship but in more natural surroundings. that a participant, does not state the direction. IV directly manipulated by unconsciously, responds to Used when previous research experimenter to observe when searching for clues is contradictory. effect on DV. about how to behave. (+) Usually higher ecological A confounding variable validity than lab experiment. because they change their (+) Avoids some participant behaviour. effects. (-) Less control. (-) More time-consuming. A kind of observational study eg Hodges and Tizard A tendency for respondents in which behaviour is IV not directly manipulated, to answer to questions in a observed indirectly in written participants not randomly way that will present them in or verbal materials such as allocated. a better light. interviews, conversations, (+) Allows research where IV diaries or TV programmes. can’t be manipulated. Behaviour is categorised (+) Enables psychologists to (qualitative)and may be study ‘real’ problems. counted(quantitative). (-) Cannot demonstrate causal relationships. (-) Inevitably many confounding variables.
  • 2. Everything left as normal, all Two (or more) groups of The extent to which a variables free to vary. participants, one for each measure is consistent. (+) Study behaviour where condition. For example when you give can’t manipulate variables. (+) Avoids order effects and participants same test a (+) High ecological validity. participants guessing the second time and compare (-) Poor control of extraneous purpose of the experiment. results the results are variables. (-) Needs more participants. consistent. (internal (-) Observer bias, low (-) Lacks control of participant reliability) observer reliability. variables (can use random For example, when you allocation). compare observations made by different observers to check consistency. (External reliability) Divising a target behaviour Same participants in each PC PRID (such as attachment or condition. Protection from harm sociability) into a subset of (+) Good control for participant Confidentiality behaviours. This can be done variables. Privacy using a behaviour checklist or (+) Fewer participants. Right to withdraw a coding system. (-) Order effect (e.g. boredom, Informed consent practice). Deception (-) Participants guess the purpose of the experiment. + a persons actions may tell us Two (or more) groups of Guidelines which inform more than what they say. participants, one for each Psychologists about +highly reaslistic. condition. acceptable behaviour and -no control of extraneous (+) Avoids order effects and advice on how to deal with variables. participants guessing the ethical dilemmas eg cost -observer bias, the purpose of the experiment. benefit analysis. researcher may “see” what (-) Needs more participants. they expect to see and (-) Lacks control of participant reduces reliability. variables (can use random allocation).
  • 3. +easy to repeat Participants matched on key A technique used to +can be collected from large participant variables. identify potential numbers (+) No order effects. participants so that they + easier to reveal confidential (+) Participant variables are representative of a information than interview. partly controlled. population (the group from -social desirability bias. (-) Matching is difficult and whom the sample is -only certain people complete never totally successful. drawn). questionnaires. Strucutured: Variables stated in a form +can be repeated Co-variables examined for that can be tested +easy to analyse positive, negative or zero (operations). -investigator bias association. The Independent Variable (expectations may influence (+) Can be used when not (what the researcher answers) possible to manipulate changes) and the Dependent unstructured: variables. Variable ( what the + more detailed info. (+) Can rule out a causal researcher measures) are -interviewer bias relationship. evident. -interviewers need more (-) People often misinterpret training so more expensive. correlations. (-) There may be other, unknown variables. Set of written questions. Co-variables increase together. A small-scale trial run of a (+) A lot of data collected. study to test the design, with (+) Does not require specialist a view to making administrators. improvements. (-) Leading questions, social desirability bias. (-) Biased samples.
  • 4. Questions can be pre One variable increases while Data analysis that focuses on structured, or created in other decreases. numerical data. response to answers +easier to analyse. (unstructured). +produces neat conclusions (+) A lot of data can be -oversimplifies reality of collected. human experience. (+) Face-to-face can assess emotions. (-) Social desirability bias, interviewer bias. (-) Requires skilled personnel. A research method that A number that tells us how Data which focuses on what involves the detailed study of closely the co-variables in a participants’ say or feel, their a single individual, institution correlational analysis are attitudes and thoughts. or event. related. (+) Represents complexity of +rich data. human behaviour. +used for rare situations eg (+) Provides rich detail. Genie isolated children, or (-) More difficult to detect brain damaged patients. patterns and reach -can’t generalise as unique conclusions. -based on recollection of past (-) Subjective, affected by events may be unreliable. personal expectations and -unethical confidentiality. beliefs. A measure of central A measure of central tendency Graph showing frequency tendency that indicates the which records the most data; data need not be spread of data around the frequently occurring score or continuous. Can use mean. category. categories. (+) Precise, all values taken (+) Useful when the data in into account. categories. (-) Harder to calculate. (-) Not useful when there are several modes.
  • 5. Graph showing Graph showing continuous For correlations or frequency data with a true relationships between two zero. variables. Scatter of dots. Each dot represents one case. frequency data, by placing dot at top of each column of a bar chart or histogram and connecting lines. Results in a many-sided shape (polygon). A statement of the A measure of central tendency. Ability to generalise to relationship between the IV The middle score once the data situations beyond the and DV. has been ranked or ordered. experiment (i.e. to other An alternative to the null (+) Not affected by extreme people, other settings and hypothesis. scores. over time). Previous research suggests (-) Not as ‘sensitive’ as the Ecological validity refers to the direction. mean. being able to generalise from one setting to another. Highest to lowest A measure of central tendency. Provide a measure of (+) Easy to calculate. Is calculated by adding all the ‘average’: the central value(s) (-) Affected by extreme numbers and dividing by the Mean: Add numbers, divide by values. number of numbers. number of numbers. (+) Makes use of all the data. Median: Middle value in an (-) Misrepresentative if there ordered list. are extreme values at one end. Mode: The most common (+) Makes use of all the data. value(s). (-) Misrepresentative if there are extreme values at one end.
  • 6. control of extraneous The effects that an Provide a measure of how variables (Internal validity): investigator/ experimenter has dispersed or spread the data experimenter bias, demand on the participants and thus on are. characteristics, control the results of the research Range: highest to lowest. extraneous variables. study. Standard deviation: Generalisability and realism mathematical calculation. (External validity): select representative samples, use realistic settings. Every member of the A sample of participants A group of people within a population has an equal chance produced by selecting people research institution that of being selected for a study. who are most easily available. must approve a study before Place all names of everyone in it begins. the research population in a hat and draw the required number. Control of the extraneous The extent to which a study A sample of participants variables so that we can be measures what it claims to produced by relying on sure that it is the IV which is measure. Ie does the IV cause volunteers to make up the influencing the DV. the DV? sample. Also known as self- Mundane realism the extent Observed effect attributed to selected sample. to which the experiment experimental manipulation reflects the real world. rather than some other factor. Generalisability the extent to Reduced by e.g. demand which the findings can be characteristics, confounding applied to situations outside variables. the experiment.
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