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  • 3. SPECIFICATION: SPECIFICATION CONTENT SPECIFICATION EXPLAINED <ul><li>THE FORMATION, MAINTENANCE AND BREAKDOWN OF ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS: </li></ul><ul><li>T heories of the formation, maintenance and breakdown of romantic relationships: for example, reward/need satisfaction, social exchange theory </li></ul>Describe and evaluate two theories for each of these three phases of romantic relationships. (it is important to note that formation and maintenance are often examined together in one question, but breakdown tends to be questioned on its own) <ul><li>HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR: </li></ul><ul><li>T he relationship between sexual selection and human reproductive behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>E volutionary explanations of parental investment: for example, sex differences, parent-offspring conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what is meant by sexual selection in the context of human reproductive behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and evaluate this relationship, using research studies relevant to human mating behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what is meant by parental investment and how this is linked to at least two areas of human reproductive behaviour. As sex differences and parental –offspring conflict are given only as examples, you might wish to consider other areas to illustrate parental investment. </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTS OF EARLY EXPERIENCE AND CULTURE ON ADULT RELATIONSHIPS: </li></ul><ul><li>T he influence of childhood and adolescent experiences on adult relationships, including parent-child relationships and interaction with peers </li></ul><ul><li>T he nature of relationships in different cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and evaluate material for different question combinations, i.e. both childhood and adolescent experiences on both parent-child relationships and interaction with peers. (worth noting that parent-child relationships and interaction with peers are preceded by the word ‘including’, which means these can be specifically asked for in an exam question </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and evaluate how relationships differ between cultures. (draw comparisons between Western and Non-Western cultures) </li></ul>
  • 4. Relationships Why do we seek Relationships?
  • 5. Relationships L1 <ul><li>What is a relationship? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we form relationships? </li></ul><ul><li>What things do we look for in a relationship? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do relationships breakdown? </li></ul><ul><li>These are the questions we will discover some answers for while studying this unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of relationship formation </li></ul><ul><li>These theories try to explain how and why we form relationships </li></ul><ul><li>You will need to be able to DESCRIBE and EVALUATE them for the examination. </li></ul><ul><li>You will need EVIDENCE to strengthen your arguments. </li></ul>
  • 6. What do we look for in a partner? <ul><li>Complete a lonely hearts column </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think males and females will look for different things? </li></ul>
  • 7. Proximity: Liking People who are Nearby <ul><li>The single best predictor of attraction </li></ul><ul><li>Where we live & work influences the friends we make. </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you can’t be with the one you love, </li></ul><ul><li>honey, love the one you’re with.” </li></ul>Bossard (1932) “ more than half of 5,000 couples who applied to get married in Philly lived within a few minutes walk!”
  • 8. Proximity: Liking People who are Nearby Evidence: (Festinger, 1950) <ul><li>Close friends : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Next door neighbours: 41% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two doors down: 22% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite ends of hallway: 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Contrary to popular belief, I do not believe that friends are necessarily the people you like best; they are merely the people who got there first.” (Sir Peter Ustinov, 1977) </li></ul>
  • 9. Why does Proximity Work? <ul><ul><li>Availability: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to meet, so more likely to form a relationship. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mere exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The more often people are exposed to an object, the more positively they evaluate that object: Humans like familiar things, they make us feel safe and happy – which is rewarding. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 10. Rate out of 5 how attractive you think the following celebs are..... <ul><li>Why do you find them attractive or not? </li></ul>
  • 11. Rate out of 5 how attractive you think the following celebs are.... <ul><li>Why do you find them attractive or not? </li></ul>
  • 12. Physical Attractiveness <ul><li>According to the attractiveness stereotype (Dion et all 1972) we perceive attractive people as also having more attractive personalities. (The halo effect) </li></ul>
  • 13. What makes someone physically attractive? <ul><li>Architectural factors= facial features, body shape and size.... </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic factors= how someone dresses and talks, their facial expressions... </li></ul><ul><li>Task: highlight in two different colours when u have mentioned A or D </li></ul>
  • 14. <ul><li>“ What’s beautiful is good” (Dion et al., 1972) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers judge attractive students as more intelligent than unattractive students (Clifford & Walster, 1973), </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adults, and nurses in pediatric wards, punish unattractive children more harshly than attractive children (Dion, 1974) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Texas judges set lower bail and smaller fines for attractive suspects (Downs & Lyons, 1991) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attractive people make more money (Hamermesh & Biddle, 1994) and get better job ratings from bosses (Hosoda et al., 2003) </li></ul></ul></ul>Physical Attractiveness Research Evidence:
  • 15. Murstein’s (1972) Matching Hypothesis <ul><li>The tendency to form a relationship with someone who is a similar level of attractiveness to oneself- why??? </li></ul><ul><li>Studied 99 couples who were dating and compared them with randomly paired couples </li></ul><ul><li>Findings= real couples were consistently rated as more alike in levels of attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>McKillip & Riedel (1993)- found in friends too! </li></ul>
  • 16. All a similar level of attractiveness?
  • 17. Similarity: Liking People Who Are Just Like Us Birds of a feather flock together Opposites attract
  • 18. Similarity: Liking People Who Are Just Like Us Birds of a feather flock together <ul><li>Bryne- law of attraction </li></ul><ul><li>“ how much we like someone is directly related to how similar our attitudes are” </li></ul><ul><li>Kendel (1978)- teenage pairs of close friends were similar in ehtnic background, religion and economic background </li></ul><ul><li>Hill, Rubin & Peplau (1976)- similarities in dating couples </li></ul>
  • 19. So... Siswe, what do you need to do to find a relationship???? You have 2 minutes to complete a “Tips on finding a relationship” guide
  • Steven Holl

    Jul 23, 2017
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