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1. Aggression <ul><li>“ An act carried out with the intention to harm another person” </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental aggression…
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  • 1. Aggression <ul><li>“ An act carried out with the intention to harm another person” </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental aggression – a means to an end </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile aggression – an end in itself </li></ul>
  • 2. Aggression <ul><li>What causes people to behave aggressively? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deindividuation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How does our environment affect the likelihood of aggressive behaviour? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat, noise, crowding </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Social Learning Theory (SLT) <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Model </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Observed consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Vicarious reinforcement and punishment </li></ul>
  • 4. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Bandura (1965) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observational learning of aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mead (1965) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural transmission of aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patterson et al (1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning of aggression within family </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Deindividuation <ul><li>Normal constraints on behaviour are weakened when a person loses their sense of individuality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowds, uniforms, drugs & alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less likely to be identified & held responsible for aggressive behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymity  deindividuation  aggression </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Deindividuation
  • 7. Deindividuation
  • 8. Deindividuation
  • 9. Deindividuation <ul><li>Zimbardo (1969) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hooded PPs were more aggressive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zimbardo (1973; Stanford Experiment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guards’ aggression increased by uniforms, sunglasses, night-time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mullen (1985) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence of mob lynching a function of crowd size </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Environmental Stressors <ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Crowding </li></ul>
  • 11. Environmental Stressors <ul><li>Stress  Arousal  Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>As arousal increases it becomes easier to trigger an aggressive response (up to a point) </li></ul>
  • 12. Environmental Stressors Level of stress Likelihood of aggressive behaviour Aggressive responses most likely at moderately high levels of stress
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