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1. Griffiths (1994)<br />The role of cognitive bias and skill in fruit machine gambling<br /> 2. What was the IV in the study (2)<br />The IV in this…
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  • 1. Griffiths (1994)<br />The role of cognitive bias and skill in fruit machine gambling<br />
  • 2. What was the IV in the study (2)<br />The IV in this study was whether the gambler was a regular or irregular gambler – regular being more than once a week. Irregular being at least once a month. <br />
  • 3. What was the DV in the study (2)<br />The DV in this study was total plays, total time playing, play rate, end stake (no of 10p), wins, win rate (time in minutes and total number of plays) .<br />
  • 4. How were the participants recruited in this study ? (4)<br />60 participants on average 23 years of age 30 regular gamblers (29 male) (snowball sample), 30 non regular (15 males) -volunteered after seeing a poster and were given full informed consent. <br />Regular was deemed playing on the fruit machine at least once a week.<br />Irregular were those who played once a month or less.<br />
  • 5. Outline the thinking aloud procedure (4)<br />Participants were randomly divided into 2 groups. In the thinking aloud condition participants were asked to say whatever was going through their mind whilst playing on the fruit machines. All verbalisations made by the participants were recorded and transcribed, using content analysis within 24 hours.<br />
  • 6. What is a hypothesis ?Describe 2 of the hypothesis(4)<br />A hypothesis is simply a statement that can be tested to see if it is true – in other words it is a prediction<br />There will be no difference between RG and NRG in skill levels in playing fruit machines<br />RG will make more irrational verbalizations when playing the machine than NRG e.g. the machine likes me<br />
  • 7. Which participants from the thinking aloud condition made the most irrational verbalisations (2)<br />The participants who made the most irrational verbalisations were the regular gamblers such as swearing at the machine or explaining away losses ‘...I lost because I wasn’t concentrating’...<br />
  • 8. Describe the two significant differences in behavioural data found in the study (4)<br />Regular gamblers had a higher rate of play 8 per minute compared to 6 p/min in the NRG’s.<br />Regular gamblers who thought aloud had a lower win rate and therefore made fewer gambles between each win than the other groups. <br />
  • 9. Outline a strength of the study (4)<br />A strength is that the ecological validity of the study is high, this is because the experiment was conducted in a real amusement arcade , using regular gamblers and real money. Therefore the ‘set up ‘ was a typical place with which the gamblers could make decisions on whether to gamble for money. This risk was maintained by providing the parts’ with enough money for 30 gambles – then after a challenge to reach 60.<br />Triangulation was used......<br />
  • 10. Describe how useful the research was (4)<br />This raises the profile of a ‘forgotten addiction’. Amongst especially adolsecents and could lead to further gambling problems in the adulthood.<br />Problem fruit machine gamblers would also benefit from listening aloud to their ‘thinking aloud’ verbalisations. <br />This could be used as a therapy encompassing CBT therapy modification programme – challenging their irrational thinking ( cognitive bias/heuristics) into more rational thinking<br />
  • 11. Outline a weakness of the study ( 2)<br />The validity of the ‘thinking aloud’ technique can be questioned. It can be seen as a very hard thing to do, because most of the verbalisations are descriptive and does not explain or give rationale for gambling behaviour.<br />The cause of the descriptions is what should be of real interest and should warrant more research.<br />Gender bias...<br />Inter-rater reliability...<br />
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