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1. Issues in Psychological Studies Finish preparing this 2. Quantitative and Qualitative measures Quantitative Qualitative <ul><li>Lacks detail, not full…
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  • 1. Issues in Psychological Studies Finish preparing this
  • 2. Quantitative and Qualitative measures Quantitative Qualitative <ul><li>Lacks detail, not full picture </li></ul><ul><li>Not allowing detailed response </li></ul><ul><li>Forces people in categories </li></ul><ul><li>Clear visual of results </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to analyse using statistics </li></ul><ul><li>More reliable – objective </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to collect </li></ul>Weaknesses Strengths Weaknesses Strengths <ul><li>Difficult to analyse and collect </li></ul><ul><li>Open to interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Find out reasons for behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Provides more detail </li></ul>
  • 3. Reliability Finish this using Revision Notes <ul><li>Also called consistency. A reliable measure gives you consistent results </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. a psychometric test that gives you the same results when you test the same person after a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Ref to handouts for more on this </li></ul>
  • 4. Validity <ul><li>Does a measure actually measure what it claims to measure? </li></ul><ul><li>Does an intelligence test actually measure intelligence or some other factor? </li></ul><ul><li>Ref to handouts for more on this </li></ul>
  • 5. Ecological Validity <ul><li>Is a study true to life? </li></ul><ul><li>If a piece of research is high in ecological validity it is easy to relate to real life. For example, an experiment conducted in very realistic conditions would be said to be high in ecological validity and an experiment conducted in very artificial conditions would be said to be low in ecological validity </li></ul>
  • 6. Problems in attempting to conduct ecologically valid research include: <ul><li>The more control you have over the experimental situation, the less ecologically valid the situation is likely to be. </li></ul><ul><li>The more ecologically valid the situation is, the less likely you are to have control over the variables and this makes it very difficult to draw conclusions. If the study is realistic you lose control of the variables. You may not be testing your aim. </li></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>In real situation no chance to debrief participants and find out why they showed that behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to replicate (repeat) if realistic study. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to ask for consent (ethical) which makes experiment unrealistic. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to protect participants by not upsetting them. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences. Some people view situations as realistic whereas others may not. </li></ul><ul><li>However the more realistic the experiment is , the more useful it is to understanding behaviour and relevant to real life applications . </li></ul>
  • 8. Ethical Considerations <ul><li>These guidelines are basically a set of rules outlining what is acceptable and what is not acceptable in research. </li></ul><ul><li>A study is ethical if it takes people’s rights into consideration, does not harm participants psychologically or in terms of health, their values or dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical considerations include consent, deception, debriefing, withdrawal & confidentiality </li></ul>
  • 9. Group Presentation <ul><li>Take 20 minutes to Research on the APA and BPS web sites and present on the following issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Consent </li></ul><ul><li>Deception </li></ul><ul><li>Debriefing </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Consent- asking permission. An issue especially with children under the age of 16 and observational research </li></ul><ul><li>Deception- withholding information or misleading participants. Is the deception justifiable? </li></ul>
  • 11. <ul><li>Debriefing- explaining the experiment to Ps & ensuring they are not harmed before they leave the experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal- allowing participants to leave the experiment at any stage </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality- protecting the identity of the participant </li></ul>
  • 12. Reductionism <ul><li>The explanation of complex behaviour by reducing it to a simple level </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Instead of looking at a student as a whole, the teacher attributes their failure to their laziness only or </li></ul><ul><li>Explaining mental disorders eg depression from a medical view point only as opposed to a holistic approach </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>Problems with reductionist explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces complex behaviour to something too simplistic </li></ul><ul><li>Could overlook other causative factors. e.g. I.Q. not the whole person </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths of reductionism </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to study. Able to use scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>Makes reasons for behaviour more understandable </li></ul>
  • 14. <ul><li>Reductionism, then, is the way in which psychologists often explain complex psychological phenomena by reducing it to a much simpler level, often focussing on a single factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Most research is reductionist to an extent, as most experimental studies choose to examine the influence of single factors on complex behaviours. </li></ul>
  • 15. Psychometrics <ul><li>Standardised tests that measure psychological characteristics or abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Hodges & Tizard – Rutter A and B scale. Questionnaire on social difficulty (Lindsay & Lindsay 1982) </li></ul><ul><li>Zimbardo – Students checked for personality abnormality </li></ul>
  • 16. Strengths <ul><li>Objective – not just subjective view of experimenter </li></ul><ul><li>Comparisons – able to compare performance </li></ul><ul><li>Easy and cheap </li></ul><ul><li>Used by therapists and employers ( aptitude for work) </li></ul>
  • 17. Weaknesses <ul><li>Subjective decision on social desirability (Hodges & Tizard) </li></ul><ul><li>Reductionist - measuring only one aspect of person. - I.Q. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not tell you if innate ability or learnt (nature-nurture) </li></ul><ul><li>May not be reliable and valid </li></ul><ul><li>Practice ,fatigue, motivation and anxiety effects </li></ul><ul><li>Different responses to tests than real life </li></ul>
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