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1. AS Psychology - Unit Two Individual Differences Workbook Defining Abnormality Name: ………………………………………………………… Form:…
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  • 1. AS Psychology - Unit Two Individual Differences Workbook Defining Abnormality Name: ………………………………………………………… Form: .………………………………………………………… Teacher: .…………………………………………………….
  • 2. Individual Differences – Defining Abnormality The Individual Differences topic looks at three different aspects of abnormality:  Defining abnormality  Explaining abnormality  Treating abnormality You will use this workbook for the first of these aspects – defining abnormality. Specifically, you will learn about:  The deviation from social norms definition  The failure to function adequately definition  The deviation from ideal mental health definition  Limitations associated with these definitions of psychological abnormality You will also be expected to: • Develop knowledge and understanding of concepts, theories and studies in relation to this area of psychology • Develop skills of analysis, evaluation and application in relation to this area of psychology • Develop knowledge and understanding of research methods associated with this area of psychology • Develop knowledge and understanding of ethical issues associated with this area of psychology
  • 3. Defining abnormality - key terms Psychopathology Social norm Cultural relativism Culture bound syndromes Self actualisation Autonomy DSM Stigmatise
  • 4. Use this section to make a note of any other words or phrases from this topic which you are unfamiliar with. Look their meaning up in your textbook or ask your teacher for help.
  • 5. What is normal? Using celebrities as examples! Before we can begin to explain and treat psychological abnormality, we must first define what we mean by ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’. Your teacher will give you a picture of a celebrity. In groups, using your knowledge of the celebrity (from newspapers, magazines, etc.) you should decide whether the celebrity is psychologically normal or abnormal. You must provide at least two reasons for your decision. Be prepared to share your answer with the class. Name of celebrity Do you think this celebrity is normal or abnormal? ............................................................................................................................. ........................... Now, give reasons for your decision: ............................................................................................................................. ........................... ........................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................. ........................... ........................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................. ...........................
  • 6. How normal are you? What can you add to these lists? a) When you are walking alone down the pavement, you must:  Wear a neutral expression  Look around from time to time  Walk steadily  ………………………………………………………………………  ………………………………………………………………………  ………………………………………………………………………  ……………………………………………………………………… b) When you are walking alone down the pavement, you must NOT:  Grin  Talk to yourself  Skip  ………………………………………………………………………  ………………………………………………………………………  ………………………………………………………………………  ……………………………………………………………………… Think of any examples of unusual, eccentric, unsociable or antisocial behaviour that you or people you know have engaged in which might be seen as ‘deviation from social norms’. E.g. behaving outrageously, doing something illegal, sulking for a long time, making up stories, etc. Under what circumstances might such behaviours lead to a diagnosis of psychological problems? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 7. Deviation from social norms Description: Example: Strengths of this definition: 3
  • 8. What is normal? – Applying definitions to a celebrity You are now going to learn about three different attempts to define psychological abnormality. After studying each definition, go back to the reasons you gave for deciding that „your‟ celebrity (on the previous page) was normal or abnormal. Compare these reasons with the criteria for each definition and decide whether each one would classify the celebrity as normal or abnormal. Explain your answer – e.g. Amy Winehouse would be classed as abnormal when using the „failure to function adequately‟ definition as her behaviour is often “highly unpredictable and inappropriate for the situation” (Rosenhan and Seligman). An example of this is when she was ejected from a children‟s pantomime for swearing. Deviation from social norms: Deviation from ideal mental health: Failure to function adequately:
  • 9. Limitations of the deviation from social norms definition: Explain and/or give an example of each of these limitations  Eccentric or abnormal?  Abnormal or criminal?  The role of context  Changes over time  Social control (risk of abuse?)  The role of culture
  • 10. Defining abnormality The impact of culture, social class and gender Most definitions of psychological abnormality are devised by white, middle class men. It has been suggested that this may lead to disproportionate numbers of people from certain groups being diagnosed as „abnormal‟. For example, in the UK, depression is more commonly identified in women, and black people are more likely than their white counterparts to be diagnosed with schizophrenia. Similarly, working class people are more likely to be diagnosed with a mental illness than those from „non manual‟ backgrounds. How might this be explained? Insert your own subheadings to summarise the content of each paragraph below 1. ……………………………………………………… There is some evidence to suggest that particular groups are at more risk of developing certain psychological disorders. For example, women may be more prone to depression because of fluctuating hormones. 2. ……………………………………………………… An alternative explanation is offered by Fernando (1991), who argues that diagnosis is always a social exchange between the patient and healthcare professional, meaning that misunderstandings are possible. These might be attributed to:  Language difficulties  Lack of understanding of religious issues  Different moral codes  Lack of understanding of the role of the family  Lack of trust (usually from the patient towards the professional) 3. ……………………………………………………… However, Winter 1999) goes one step further by suggesting that there may be a deliberate bias which contributes to variations in diagnoses between groups. He suggests that the upbringing and training of Western healthcare professionals may lead them to be “biased against, or insufficiently sensitive to, the culture and social situations of black, working class or female clients.”
  • 11. Defining abnormality The impact of cultural relativism Discuss and make a note of how cultural relativism might cause problems when attempting to use each of the definitions of abnormality below: Deviation from social norms: Deviation from ideal mental health: Failure to function adequately:
  • 12. The impact of cultural relativism Culture bound syndromes Culture relativism is the idea that the behaviour of the individual must be judged in terms of the specific laws, social norms and customs of their particular culture- i.e. it is relative to that culture. This makes it impossible to make absolute judgements about what is normal and abnormal. The importance of considering cultural relativism is demonstrated by research by McCajor Hall, who carried out extensive research which uncovered 36 culture- bound syndromes. These are groups of symptoms occurring together, which are only diagnosed in particular cultures (i.e. they are not universal). A few of these are listed below: Name of Country/culture Characteristics of syndrome syndrome Amock Malaysia and Involves a period of brooding, followed by Indonesia violent behaviour. Occurs only in men. Behainin Bali Abdominal pain, headache, ringing in the ears, impaired vision, screaming, weeping and convulsions. Exhaustion follows the episode and the individual (usually female) has no memory of what happened. Dhat India Severe anxiety and hypochondria, usually focused on the loss of semen, discolouration of urine, and feelings of weakness and exhaustion. Kuru New Guinea Progressive dementia and psychosis found among cannibals in New Guinea. It may have similarities to Creuzfeld-Jakob Disease (CJD). Bulimia North America Food bingeing, followed by self induced Nervosa and Western vomiting. May occur alongside depression and Europe substance abuse. Windigo Algonkian Indian Manifests itself as depression and anxiety followed by possession by a giant man eating monster. This is believed to lead to killing and cannibalism. Treatment is to kill the sufferer!
  • 13. Defining abnormality - The impact of social class and gender Now, using the information on the previous pages, and in your textbook, think about how the application of each definition of abnormality might be affected by the social class and gender of the person being assessed: Definition Social class Gender Deviation from social norms Deviation from ideal mental health Failure to function adequately
  • 14. Failure to function adequately Description: Example: Strengths of this definition:
  • 15. Failure to function adequately Rosenhan and Seligman (1989) propose seven major features which indicate that a person may not be functioning adequately. The more of these features that are possessed by the individual, the more likely they are to be considered abnormal. Match each criteria to the appropriate description (draw a line or colour code the boxes). Criteria Description Personal distress Breaking laws, taboos, unwritten social rules, etc. Maladaptive behaviour Behaviour that differs substantially from that you would expect in the situation. Irrationality and Behaviour that makes other people feel incomprehensibility uncomfortable. Unpredictability and loss Behaviour is often highly unpredictable and of control inappropriate for the situation. Unconventional or The person is upset or depressed. statistically rare behaviour Observer discomfort Behaviour that prevents an individual from achieving major life goals. Violation of moral There appears to be no good reason why the standards person should choose to behave that way. Now, choose two criteria and give an example how they might manifest itself. For example, a person who was suffering PERSONAL DISTRESS might cry constantly. Example 1 ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... Example 2 ......................................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................................
  • 16. Limitations of the failure to function adequately definition: Explain and/or give an example of each of these limitations  Who decides what an acceptable level of functioning is?  Context of the behaviour  Some people have psychological disorders but still function adequately  Some people may be classified as not functioning adequately but do not have a psychological disorder  Cultural issues
  • 17. How do health care professionals diagnose psychological abnormality? The exam board does not specifically require you to know how health care professionals define abnormality. However, having a basic understanding of the techniques that medical professionals use to diagnose abnormality, will be helpful in terms of understanding how abnormality is defined, explained and treated – which is what you need to be able to do for your exam. Two of the most commonly used standards for categorizing forms of psychological distress in the psychiatric profession are the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD). They both have a similar format and similar categories, although the former is for mental disorders only, whereas the latter is a general medical classification system, with a specific section for mental disorders. On the next two pages, you will find a very brief summary of the DSM axis (categories) and the DSM criteria for defining schizophrenia. When you have finished reading, come back and answer these questions: Which of the definitions of psychological abnormality that we have looked at so far is the DSM most similar to (and why)? What possible problems might there be with using the DSM criteria for diagnosis?
  • 18. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) One of the most commonly used measurements of abnormality is the DSM. It is published by the American Psychiatric Association and provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. The DSM-IV (the latest version) organizes each psychiatric diagnosis into five levels (axes) relating to different aspects of disorder or disability: There are five axis (categories) used: 1. Major clinical syndromes 2. Personality disorders and mental retardation 3. General medical conditions (liver damage, immunity etc) 4. Psychosocial and environmental problems (divorce, poverty, which may impact on symptoms) 5. Global assessment of functioning scale (rated 1 – 100 on their ability to function effectively in their social world – a person who scores less than 10 would be possibly unable to wash themselves or may self harm or harm others etc) – see p.220 of your textbook for more details of the GAF scale Common Axis I disorders include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, ADHD, autism, phobias, and schizophrenia. Common Axis II disorders include personality disorders: paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, and mental retardation. Common Axis III disorders include brain injuries and other medical/physical disorders which may aggravate existing diseases or present symptoms similar to other disorders.
  • 19. Symptoms of Schizophrenia (DSM diagnosis) A. Characteristic symptoms: Two (or more) of the following, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated):  delusions  hallucinations  disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence)  grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior  negative symptoms, i.e., affective flattening, alogia, or avolition Note: Only one Criterion A symptom is required if delusions are bizarre or hallucinations consist of a voice keeping up a running commentary on the person's behavior or thoughts, or two or more voices conversing with each other. B. Social/occupational dysfunction: For a significant portion of the time since the onset of the disturbance, one or more major areas of functioning such as work, interpersonal relations, or self-care are markedly below the level achieved prior to the onset (or when the onset is in childhood or adolescence, failure to achieve expected level of interpersonal, academic, or occupational achievement). C. Duration: Continuous signs of the disturbance persist for at least 6 months. This 6-month period must include at least 1 month of symptoms (or less if successfully treated) that meet Criterion A (i.e., active-phase symptoms) and may include periods of prodromal or residual symptoms. During these prodromal or residual periods, the signs of the disturbance may be manifested by only negative symptoms or two or more symptoms listed in Criterion A present in an attenuated form (e.g., odd beliefs, unusual perceptual experiences). D. Schizoaffective and Mood Disorder exclusion: Schizoaffective Disorder and Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features have been ruled out. E. Substance/general medical condition exclusion: The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition. F. Relationship to a Pervasive Developmental Disorder: If there is a history of Autistic Disorder or another Pervasive Developmental Disorder, the additional diagnosis of Schizophrenia is made only if prominent delusions or hallucinations are also present for at least a month (or less if successfully treated).
  • 20. Deviation from ideal mental health Description: Example: Strengths of this definition:
  • 21. Deviation from Ideal Mental Health – Jahoda’s criteria Jahoda identified 6 criteria that are necessary for ‘ideal’ mental health. She suggests that, if you lack any of these, you may suffer from a mental disorder. Complete the table with an explanation or example of each criteria: Criteria Explanation or example 1. Positive attitudes towards the self 2. Self actualisation of one’s potential 3. Resistance to stress 4. Personal autonomy 5. Accurate perception of reality 6. Adapting to the environment
  • 22. Limitations of the deviation from ideal mental health definition: Explain and/or give an example of each of these limitations  Who defines ideal mental health?  The difficulty of self actualisation  Possible benefits of stress  Cultural issues
  • 23. Family fight to win back art of 'insane' genius A legal battle rages over the rights to works given away by a Mexican artist confined in US asylums A row has erupted over the legacy of one of the most celebrated exponents of "outsider art", more than 40 years after his death. During his deeply troubled lifetime, Martín Ramírez's paintings were ignored by the art establishment. A poor Mexican immigrant to the United States, Ramírez painted in near obscurity for more than 30 years while incarcerated in Californian mental hospitals until his death in 1963. But Ramírez's artistic reputation has undergone an extraordinary re-evaluation in the last few years, with his paintings now fetching hundreds of thousands of dollars at auction. Now a multi-million dollar legal battle has begun over the ownership of his paintings, hundreds of which he simply gave away in the hospital ward. An auction of 17 paintings at Sotheby's was recently halted when lawyers for the Ramírez family claimed them. At the heart of the legal dispute is a conundrum. Was Ramírez, who was diagnosed a "catatonic schizophrenic" really insane? And if he was, as his family believes, was he legally competent to give away his life's work? Eric Lieberman, a lawyer representing the Ramírez family, insists that, because the Californian courts determined that Ramírez should be committed as insane, "a presumption arises that he was incompetent to engage in any such transactions". After a major retrospective of his work in New York last year, a reviewer for the New York Times declared that he was not just a great outsider artist - creating outside the artistic mainstream - but "simply one of the greatest artists of the 20th century". Adding to the bitterness of the dispute is the fact that the Ramírez family, orig
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    Jul 23, 2017

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    Jul 23, 2017
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