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1. Addiction Lesson 3 The Biological Model continued.. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>To be able to outline the genetic and reinforcement (pleasure centres)…
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  • 1. Addiction Lesson 3 The Biological Model continued..
  • 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>To be able to outline the genetic and reinforcement (pleasure centres) theories of addiction. </li></ul><ul><li>To evaluate these two approaches to explain intiation, maintenance and relapse of addictions. </li></ul><ul><li>To use synopticity in your overview of this topic and in essay questions </li></ul>
  • 3. What is synopticity ? <ul><li>Read Synoptic toolkit in front of textbook to help. </li></ul><ul><li>It means to bring in ideas such as determinism, reductionism, possible bias (gender/cultural) in the area that you are looking at. </li></ul><ul><li>It may also be linking together different areas of the A-level course eg addiction to over-eating and eating behaviours-obesity </li></ul>
  • 4. Homework due - 28th September <ul><li>Answer essay – </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss one or more biological explanation(s) for addiction. (9+16 marks) Use the synoptic toolkit at the beginning of your textbook to help. </li></ul>
  • 5. Connect the lessons…. <ul><li>Complete the sheet on different models of addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of real-life examples you can relate to these models? </li></ul><ul><li>You have 5 mins </li></ul>
  • 6. Biological Model continued.. <ul><li>Make notes on the role of dopamine in relation to Initiation, Maintenance and relapse. </li></ul><ul><li>You have 20 mins </li></ul>
  • 8. Genetics - Its ‘family’ <ul><li>We have gone from looking at family and twin studies to being able to look at specific receptors and genes. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage of this is that family studies behaviour could be due to genes or environment - genetic analysis results can help lessen this effect (looking at nature not nuture) SYNOPTICITY </li></ul>
  • 9. Evidence <ul><li>Jang et al (2000) - study of 300+ MZ and 300+ DZ twins found a connection between alcohol use and personality traits (including anti-social behaviour, violence, non-conformists) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation ? </li></ul>
  • 10. Evidence continued.. <ul><li>Kendler (2003) - twin study found a link between a common genetic factor and alcohol dependence, illicit drug use and anti-social behaviour. Done in Virginia,US. He concluded that some genes may lead to a higher vulnerability to addictive behaviours. </li></ul>
  • 12. Specific Genes - mainly DRD gene (also implicated in schizophrenia) <ul><li>Noble et al (1991) linked the A1variant of the DRD2 gene to severe alcoholism </li></ul><ul><li>DRD2 is the dopamine receptor gene </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to ‘pleasure centres in the brain’ </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>Initiation of addiction and DRD2 </li></ul><ul><li>Blum et al (1991) found an increase in the A1 variant of the DRD gene in children of alcoholics - pre-disposition to start ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with this? </li></ul>
  • 14. I say no, no, no!
  • 15. <ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Olds and Milner (1954) - found pleasure centres of the brain (since linked to dopamine receptors). Rats would press a lever for the electrical stimulation to parts of the brain and continue to do so. </li></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>Relapse </li></ul><ul><li>If it is a genetic problem/ neurotransmitter problem then the individual would be more prone to relapse. </li></ul>
  • 17. Evaluation of the biological approach <ul><li>Read the RS 4. </li></ul><ul><li>For each point think how you could visually explain it. </li></ul><ul><li>Sketch your ideas for each one to share with the class. </li></ul><ul><li>Work in groups of four. </li></ul><ul><li>You have 20 minutes </li></ul>
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