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1. Thigpen and Cleckley Worksheet Remind yourself of the following by defining them Case Study: ________________________________________________________________________…
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  • 1. Thigpen and Cleckley Worksheet Remind yourself of the following by defining them Case Study: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Action Research: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Question: Why do you think this was action research? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ The Study (can transfer to your notes if you like) Aim: to explore a case study of a young woman to see whether she had Multiple Personality Disorder. Sample: a woman in her twenties who we refer to as EVE WHITE. Referred for headaches and family problems. Real name (which she released later) was Chris Sizemore). Variables: IV - is not really there but I guess we could say our methods of treatments DV – how she responds to treatment Method: 1) Action research 2) Case study 3) 100 hours of interview over 18 months 4) Projective tests (Roschart Ink Blot test) 5) Psychometric tests (IQ, Memory test) 6) Physiological Tests (EEG)
  • 2. Qualitative Results: The patient (referred to as Eve White in the study) had been referred for therapy to one of the authors because of ‘severe and blinding headaches’. At the first interview she also complained of ‘‘blackouts’’ following her headaches, although her family were not aware of anything that would suggest a real loss of consciousness or serious mental confusion. The psychiatrists believed that she had a number of complex, but relatively commonplace marital conflicts and personal frustrations. However they were puzzled that Eve White had no memory of a recent trip. They used hypnosis and she remembered the trip. After her first visit she remembered writing a letter to her therapist but not posting it. The letter arrived a few days later and concerned her therapy and was written in her usual handwriting, but at the bottom of the page there was a paragraph that looked like a child had written it. During the interview, Eve White who was normally very self-controlled became distressed and asked whether hearing an occasional imaginary voice made her insane. She reported that she had on several occasions over the last few months briefly heard a voice addressing her. During this conversation Eve White, as if in pain suddenly put both hands to her head. After a tense moment of silence her hands dropped, and the therapist observed a ‘quick, reckless smile’ and in a bright voice she said: ‘Hi there, Doc’! To the therapist it seemed that the usually conventional and retiring Eve White had changed into a carefree person. When asked her name she immediately replied that she was Eve Black. The therapist noted that this new person ‘had a childish daredevil air, an erotically mischievous glance, a face marvelously free from the habitual signs of care, seriousness and underlying distress’. The voice and language structure were also very different, and to the therapist it appeared to be an entirely different woman. After more sessions they found that hypnosis was no longer needed for obtaining the changes. However, the therapists stated that this did complicate Eve White’s life considerably as Eve Black found herself more able to ‘take over’ than before. According to the therapists, Eve Black’s Behaviour was ‘characterized by irresponsibility and a shallowly hedonistic desire for excitement and pleasure’. She succeeded in concealing her identity not only from Eve White, but also from her parents and husband. Eve Black denied marriage to the man, who she despised, and denied any relationship to Eve White’s daughter except that of an unconcerned bystander. To her husband, daughter and parents her unpleasant Behaviour, harshness and occasional acts of violence were explained in terms of unaccountable fits of temper in a woman who was habitually gentle and considerate’. However as the treatment progressed, Eve White’s headaches returned and so did the ‘blackouts’. Eve Black denied all responsibility and said that she also experienced lack of awareness during these ‘blackouts’. Eve White’s general state of mind was deteriorating and confinement was considered. It became easier for the therapist to call up whichever personality he wanted to examine, and childhood experiences were investigated under hypnosis. During one such episode, Eve White appeared to relax into a sleepy state. ‘After two minutes, her eyes opened, blankly staring about the room trying to orient herself. The therapists believed that another personality had emerged who called herself Jane. She was described as having a husky voice and immeasurable poise. The other personality, they argued, was more responsible than Eve Black and more confident and interesting than Eve White Having been able to work with the three personalities for several months the therapists concluded that if Jane could take possession of the personalities the patient would regain full health and find her way to a happy life. Jane had awareness of both Eves’ thoughts and behaviour but did not have complete access to their memories prior to her appearance.
  • 3. Exercise 1 – The personalities Look at the results and pull out 3 words to describe each personality Eve White ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ Eve Black ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ Jane ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ Exercise 2 – The Psychometric tests IQ – eve white was given an IQ test then Eve black was given an IQ test. Predict who did better ________________________________________________ (Check on results page!) Does this clearly prove that there are 2 different personalities? Why? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________
  • 4. Exercise 3 – Projective Tests Look at the image below. Write down the first words that come to mind. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Above is a Rorschart Ink Blot test which is a projective test. A projective test is a Freudian test which is based on the idea that subjects will look at an ambiguous picture and then be asked what they see. Freud believed that their unconscious desires and thoughts will then be projected onto the picture (for example he said that someone who is gay will constantly see images of his mother). Look back at the words you have written down. Do they say anything interesting about your state of mind?? Can you give 2 problems with using this kind of test to scientifically establish whether someone has multiple personality disorder or not? 1. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2.________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________
  • 5. Quantitative Results Psychometric IQ – Eve White = 110 and Eve Black = 104 Memory – Eve White had a superior memory function to Eve Black Projective Eve Black was healthier than Eve White Eve Black was regressive and Eve White was repressive. Physiological EEG EW and Jane =11 cycles per second EB = 12.5 cycles per second (border line psychopathy) Evaluation: Give 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of this study. Strengths 1) 2) Weaknesses 1) 2)
  • 6. Put a smiley or sad face for each of these ethical issues and say what the problem is where necessary. INFORMED CONSENT CONFIDENTIALITY PHYSICAL HARM PSYCHOLOGICAL HARM RIGHT TO WITHDRAW DEBRIEFING Short answer questions 1) Can you identify 2 differences between having different sides to your personality and having multiple personality disorder? (2) 2) suggest two pieces of evidence from this study that suggests Eve really did have multiple personality disorder (4) 3) Describe two ethical issues that arise in this study (4)
  • 7. 4) Using examples from the study, give one advantage and one disadvantage of carrying out action research (4) 5) Describe a projective test used in this study (2) b) What were the findings from this test? (2) 6) Identify one psychometric measure used in this study and say what was found b) What is the strength of using this technique to study multiple personality? 7) In the study Thigpen and cleckley describe how eve crossed her legs; ‘the therapist noted from the corner of his awareness something distinctly attractive about them and also that this was the first time he had received such an impression’ a) How does the therapist interpret this observation? b) Give one other interpretation of this observation
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