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1. The Psychodynamic Approach: Revision Booklet<br />Ref to syllabus: Define the psychodynamic approach showing understanding that it is about the influence of…
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  • 1. The Psychodynamic Approach: Revision Booklet<br />Ref to syllabus: Define the psychodynamic approach showing understanding that it is about the influence of unconscious processes on behaviour,<br />and the importance of early childhood<br />Task 1: Revise the assumptions and without looking at your notes write a brief summary of the two assumptions<br />Ref to syllabus: Define and use psychological terminology accurately and<br />appropriately including:<br />i id, ego, superego<br />ii stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital)<br />iii repression<br />iv Oedipus complex<br />v defence mechanisms<br />vi conscious, preconscious, unconscious<br />Task 2: Revise the terms above and without looking at your notes define them<br />Ref to syllabus: Describe and evaluate the case study as a research method used in psychology and as used in the psychodynamic approach.<br />Task3: Revise the section on a case study and without looking at your notes fill in the table below<br />Description of case studyAdvantages Disadvantages <br />TASK 4: Revise Freud’s case study and without looking at your notes fill in the table below<br />Description case study (Freud)Advantages Disadvantages <br />Briefly comment on how Freud’s case study differs from the normal standard case study<br />________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Ref to syllabus: Describe, assess and apply issues of reliability, validity,<br />subjectivity, objectivity and Generalisability in the analysis of<br />qualitative data.<br />Task 5<br />Revise this section and answer the following questions: remember you can use information from other sections: social approach to answer these questions<br />Identify issues of reliability <br />_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Identify issues of validity<br />______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Identify issues of reliability<br />______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Identify issues of generalisability<br />______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Identify issues of objectivity<br />______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Identify issues of subjectivity<br />______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Explain two problems with using qualitative data in psychological research (4)<br />______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Ref to syllabus: Evaluate Freud’s theory in terms of credibility (e.g. Masson, 1989).<br />Task 6: Revise this section and answer the following questions<br />Define credibility<br />_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Briefly state criticisms on Freud’s theories lacking credibility put forward by Masson, (1989)<br />_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Ref to syllabus: Describe, assess and apply the terms ‘cross-sectional’ and<br />‘Longitudinal’ as applied to research methods.<br />Task 7: Revise this section and fill in the tables below using your notes and this sample essay<br />Cross-sectional studies are good because data can be gathered at one moment in time, which means that the study can be completed in the same conditions and without delay, unlike longitudinal studies. Longitudinal studies are good because they use the same participants throughout the study, which means that there is control over participant variables the same people are being compared. Longitudinal studies are not good because<br />they take a long time and people can drop out, which means that the sample used is special in some way it is biased because it does not include those who refused to keep taking part, for example, or those who moved away. Cross-sectional studies are not good because they involve using different participants and differences between participants might cause differences in the results, rather than what is being tested. It can be seen that a strength for one of these types of study is a weakness of the other. The strength of using the same people in longitudinal studies is a weakness because of sampling and time problems. The strength of using different people in one moment in time (a good thing with regard to getting the study done) is a weakness because of participant variables. <br />Description of Longitudinal studyAdvantages Disadvantages <br />Description of cross-sectional studyAdvantages Disadvantages <br />Ref to syllabus : Describe, assess and apply issues of ethics and issues of<br />credibility with regard to using personal data from methods such<br />as case studies (eg should such data be in the public domain?).<br />Task 8: Identify the five main ethical guidelines you have covered previously<br />GuidelineexplanationInformed consentdeceitRight to withdrawaldebriefCompetence <br />For the psychodynamic approach you are asked to look at two additional guidelines: confidentiality and privacy: Make relevant notes on this section page 19-20 (from the revision guide, I gave you a photocopy<br />Confidentiality means making it impossible for anyone else to identify the participants in research. Also, all participants are entitled to privacy and so confidentiality must be maintained. There are case studies, particularly in memory research, where confidentiality is maintained, such as HM and KF. Initials are used instead of names and usually particular hospitals and institutions where the participants can be found are not identified. Little Hans was a pseudonym, as was Dora and the Rat Man, which are other case studies Freud published. In child psychology, there is a famous case study involving Genie, and again this is a pseudonym. The John Money study that looks at nature-nurture issues regarding gender also hides the identity of the participants.<br />However, in spite of efforts to protect individuals, much of the time their identity is known to quite a few people. Sometimes this is the choice of the individual or their family, as in the case of Clive Wearing, who is studied because of his loss of the ability to lay down new memories due to damage to his hippocampus. David Reimer in the Money study felt strongly that he wanted to put the record straight because it was said that he had been successfully reared as a girl after an accident, when he had been born male, but in fact he had never felt comfortable as a girl and became male ‘again’. <br />Sometimes identity is revealed because there are quite a few people who know the person concerned – after all, case studies are often about unique individuals and they can be identified because of their uniqueness. This is the case, for example, with HM – though not that many people know who he is so there is some confidentiality and privacy. It is now known who Little Hans was, and Anna O, as well as Dora, so many of Freud’s patients have now been identified. Their privacy has been invaded.<br />Read this section and answer the following questions task 9<br />How has confidentiality been maintained in case studies?<br />______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Identify when names and identities of people in case studies can be disclosed using examples of particular cases<br />___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Ref to syllabus: Describe and evaluate the correlational method/design.<br />Task 7: revise this section and fill in the table below<br />Description of correlational method/designAdvantages Disadvantages <br />Have a go at answering the following short questions<br /><ul><li>Is +0.67 likely to be an accepted correlation?
  • 2. Is +0.67 a positive or a negative correlation?
  • 3. If there was no correlation would you expect the result of the test to be near +1, –1 or 0?
  • 4. Which test is used for a correlation in your course?</li></ul>(5) What two factors would lead you to choose that test? <br />(6) Which type of design (longitudinal or cross-sectional) is used when a study follows a child<br />through its early years to monitor its language development?<br />(7) Which type of design (longitudinal or cross-sectional) is used when a study looks at one<br />group of 7-year-olds and one group of 5-year-olds to compare their scores on a test?<br />(8) What is the term for data gathered by asking the participant for views on him/herself?<br />(9) Give one example of a rating scale.<br />(10) Give one strength of a correlational design. (2 marks)<br />(11) Give one weakness of a correlational design. (2 marks)<br />Ref to syllabus: Identify, describe and apply different sampling techniques<br />including random sampling, stratified sampling, volunteer and<br />self-selected sampling, and opportunity sampling, including<br />advantages and disadvantages of each technique<br />You should have covered this in the social and cognitive sections but you will need to know this for the psychodynamic section<br />Read through the following and summarise in the table provided below: task 10<br />Sampling<br />When any study is carried out, it is rarely possible to include everyone who should be involved as participants, for example the findings of a study on obedience would apply to everyone, but it would be impossible to include everyone in that study. <br />Almost always in psychology a study involves looking at a sample of the population of interest, the target population is all the people the study is about, those of whom the findings of a study can be applied to. The chosen sample must be representative of the population and if possible not be biased. Representative here means including member s of each type of person in that population, usually in the correct proportion.<br />It is difficult to get a representative sample because there are problems in obtaining participants, even if you can get access to relevant people, you still have to choose who will be involved.<br />Identify the target population in the following<br /><ul><li>Milgram’s study
  • 5. Research into the effectiveness of the use of cognitive therapy for agoraphobics
  • 6. An investigation into play in one year old infants
  • 7. A study into whether cat owners believe the whiskers advert</li></ul>There are a number of sampling techniques in use, although none of which are is ideal for getting a representative sample, although some techniques are better than others.<br />Simple random sampling<br />This method involves everyone having an equal chance of being chosen, the main rule is that everyone in the target population is available for selection each time a participant is picked out.<br />For example, you could put all of the names of the students at your college in a hat and pick out however many you need.   <br /> <br />Random sampling is the best technique for providing an unbiased representative sample of a target population.<br />Another way would be is to allocate people in the target population with a number and use a random number generator.<br />Strengths<br />There is no bias in the way that the participants are selected, everyone has a equal chance of being selected. Therefore the sample is likely to be representative of the target population.<br />Weaknesses<br />However random sampling does have limitations.  Random sampling can be very time consuming and is often impossible to carry out, particularly when you have a lar
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