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1. Another Advanced test of Theory of Mind (Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, pgs 813-822) 2. Baron-Cohen et al (1997) <ul><li>Leo Kanner…
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  • 1. Another Advanced test of Theory of Mind (Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, pgs 813-822)
  • 2. Baron-Cohen et al (1997) <ul><li>Leo Kanner (1943): Described range of characteristics of children he described as having “ early infantile autism) page 42 </li></ul><ul><li>Hans Asperger (1940s): Described pattern of behaviours seen in young boys with normal intelligence and </li></ul><ul><li>language development but exhibited </li></ul><ul><li>“ autistic-like behaviours” </li></ul><ul><li>Simon Baron-Cohen (1980s ono): </li></ul><ul><li>Leading researcher on Autism in the UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed several tests for the condition. </li></ul>
  • 3. Baron-Cohen et al (1997) <ul><li>The SALLY-ANNE TEST. </li></ul><ul><li>Meet Sally and Anne </li></ul><ul><li>Sally puts a ball in the basket and then leaves the room </li></ul><ul><li>Anne moves the ball into her box </li></ul><ul><li>Sally returns… Where will she look for the ball? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does Anne think Sally will look for the ball? </li></ul><ul><li>Autistic children will say that Sally will look for the ball in the basket only… They have no THEORY OF MIND. </li></ul>
  • 4. Baron-Cohen et al (1997) <ul><li>Theory of mind: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The ability to infer, in other people, a </li></ul><ul><li>range of mental states such as beliefs, </li></ul><ul><li>desires, intentions and emotions” </li></ul><ul><li>The Sally-Anne test is very good for young children with severe autism but adults with Aspergers Syndrome and higher functioning adults often pass the second order test (Where does Anne think Sally will look for the ball?) although show other evidence of lack of ToM. </li></ul><ul><li>Baron-Cohen et al developed a new test for higher functioning adults…… </li></ul><ul><li>(eyes test here) </li></ul><ul><li>)part 2 </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Study Details: </li></ul><ul><li>Participants? </li></ul><ul><li>Design? </li></ul><ul><li>IV /DV? </li></ul><ul><li>Controls? </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure? </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes task </li></ul><ul><li>Strange Stories Task? </li></ul>Baron-Cohen et al (1997)
  • 7. Katie and Emma are playing in the house. Emma picks up a banana from the fruit bowl and holds it up to her ear. She says to Katie “Look! This banana is a telephone!” Is it true what Emma says? Yes/No/Don’t know Why does Emma say this?
  • 8. <ul><li>One day Aunt Jane came to visit Peter. Now Peter loves his aunt very much, but today she is wearing a new hat; a new hat, which Peter </li></ul><ul><li>thinks is very ugly indeed. Peter thinks his aunt looks silly in it, and much nicer in her old hat. But when Aunt Jane asks Peter, “How do you like my new hat”, Peter says,“Oh, it’s very nice”. </li></ul><ul><li>Was it true, what Peter said? Yes/No/Don’t know </li></ul><ul><li>Why did he say it? </li></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>FINDINGS: </li></ul>Baron-Cohen et al (1997) On the Strange Stories Task none of the participants with Tourette’s syndrome made any mistakes whereas many of those participants with autism and Asperger’s syndrome had difficulties with this task. Condition Mean score on the Eye Task Adults with autism or Asperger syndrome 16.3 'Normal' adults 20.3 Adults with Tourette syndrome 20.4 Condition Mean score on the Eye Task 'Normal' males 18.8 'Normal' females 21.8
  • 10. <ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>Adults with Autism and AS were impaired on a ToM test. </li></ul><ul><li>This was NOT due to low intelligence, neurological disability or poor development. </li></ul><ul><li>The results provide evidence of ToM deficits in adults on the autistic spectrum. </li></ul>Baron-Cohen et al (1997) Something to think about! Autism is more common in boys than girls. Girls performed significantly on the eyes task than boys.
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