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1. Resisting Pressures to Obey Individual differences 2. Individual differences found by Milgram <ul><li>As part of his research on obedience, Milgram (1974)…
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  • 1. Resisting Pressures to Obey Individual differences
  • 2. Individual differences found by Milgram <ul><li>As part of his research on obedience, Milgram (1974) noted the background characteristics of those taking part in order to find out which characteristics were consistent with higher or lower obedience. </li></ul><ul><li>Age, marital status, occupation and military experience had little influence on the person’s ability to resist the commands of the experimenter. </li></ul><ul><li>However, educational history and religious preference did. </li></ul><ul><li>Less-educated participants were less likely to resist the experimenter commands than those participants with at least a college degree. </li></ul><ul><li>Likewise Roman Catholic participants were more likely to obey the experimenter than were Protestant participants. </li></ul>
  • 3. Insights from Milgram’s studies <ul><li>In Milgram’s study of obedience, a high proportion of participants gave the maximum 450v, yet others defied the experimenter’s instructions and withdrew before this point. </li></ul><ul><li>Milgram found that when the experiment was moved away from the prestigious setting of Yale University to a downtown office, more people felt able to resist authority. This tells us that STATUS is a key factor in obedience/resistance. </li></ul>
  • 4. Insights from Milgram’s studies <ul><li>Resistance was also increased when the victim could be seen, or when other confederates were present. </li></ul><ul><li>This shows us that being made aware of the effects of your actions and having social support are means of increasing resistance. </li></ul>
  • 5. Moral considerations <ul><li>One of Milgram’s colleagues, moral philosopher Lawrence Kohlberg (1969), presented a group of Milgram’s volunteers with a set of imaginary moral dilemmas. </li></ul><ul><li>These dilemmas determined not so much what people would do in situations like Milgram’s shock experiment, but WHY they would behave in that way. </li></ul>
  • 6. Moral considerations <ul><li>Kohlberg found that those who based their decisions on more general moral principles (e.g. the importance of justice over social order), were more defiant in the Milgram study, while most of those at a more restricted level of moral development obeyed the experimenter completely. </li></ul><ul><li>The American civil rights leader Martin Luther King argued that laws are only valid insofar as they are grounded in justice , and that a commitment to justice carries with it an obligation to disobey unjust laws. </li></ul>
  • 7. Martin Luther King and Social Justice
  • 8. Social Heroism <ul><li>In his book, The Lucifer Effect (2007) Zimbardo suggests that while the majority of humanity is bowing to an unjust authority, the few who resist are really heroes. </li></ul><ul><li>In this context, heroes are those people who are willing to make sacrifices for the good of others in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Social heroism involves putting oneself at risk in pursuit of an important principle. </li></ul><ul><li>It may be very costly in terms of lowered social status, loss of credibility and in some cases, even arrest, torture and even death. </li></ul>
  • 9. Social Heroism <ul><li>The best-known ‘hero’ is probably Nelson Mandela , imprisoned for 36 years for his resistance to government apartheid policies in South Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>A less well-known ‘hero’ is Michael Bernhardt , the US soldier who refused to obey orders to shoot unarmed civilians in the My Lai massacre during the Vietnam war in which nearly 500 Vietnamese died at the hands on the US troops. </li></ul>
  • 10. Michael Bernhardt: Social Hero? <ul><li>When interviewed by Kohlberg, Bernhardt claimed: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I can hardly do anything if I know it is wrong. If I think about it long enough, I am just positively compelled.” </li></ul>
  • 11. Zimbardo’s beliefs <ul><li>Zimbardo believes a key factor that encourages heroic action is stimulation of the ‘heroic imagination ’, a mental orientation that makes people more likely to act ‘heroically’ when the time comes. </li></ul><ul><li>This involves imagining facing potentially risky social situations, struggling with the hypothetical problems these situations raise, and considering one’s likely actions and their consequences. </li></ul>
  • Sources of Int Law

    Jul 23, 2017


    Jul 23, 2017
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