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1. The attraction of celebrities 2. Learning objectiveTo be able to explain psychologicalexplanations of Celebrity Worship andStalking PASSING INTENSE INTEREST WORSHIP 3.…
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  • 1. The attraction of celebrities
  • 2. Learning objectiveTo be able to explain psychologicalexplanations of Celebrity Worship andStalking PASSING INTENSE INTEREST WORSHIP
  • 3. • Who do you consider to be a ‘celebrity’? List at least 10 people.• Who is your favourite celebrity? Why?• What characteristics are displayed by celebrities?• What have they done to be famous?
  • 4. What is a celebrity?A celebrity is a famous, widely-recognised person whocommands a high degree ofpublic and media attention. Ithas been said that they are wellknown just for being well known.The rise of celebrity culture islinked to massive growth ofreality TV – in particular BigBrother.
  • 5. National Children’s Day Poll 2008Who is the most famousperson in the world?Simon Cowell!
  • 6. Social Psychological explanations Pathological view: Positive/healthy view:Absorption Attachment stylesAddiction Model Jenkins Positive Action view
  • 7. Parasocial Relationships • Relationships with celebrities are usually entirely one- sided. • The target individual is unaware of the existence of the person who created the relationship. • These relationships may be appealing because they make few demands, and the individual does not run the risk of criticism or rejection as might be the case in a real relationship.
  • 8. PSRs are more likely if….• The TV characters • If the viewer is female perceived as attractive • The viewer is lonely• We perceive them as and shy similar to us• We perceive them as real
  • 9. Celebrity Attitude Scale1. Entertainment-Social: talk with friends about celebrities/gossip.2. Intense-Personal: intensity of feelings for celebrities. Can become an obsession.3. Borderline-Pathological: potentially harmful aspects of feelings for celebrities. Can lead to uncontrollable behaviours e.g. stalking.
  • 10. Entertainment socialThis 10-items scale measures the socialaspect associated with the celebrityworship such as discussion with friendsand shared experiences. i.e. My friendsand I like to discuss what X has done.
  • 11. The intense personal sub-scaleThis nine items scale measures theintensity of a person‟s feelings towardsthe celebrity along with obsessionaltendencies such as “ I consider X to bemy soul mate”.
  • 12. The borderline psychological sub-scaleThis four item scale measures thepotentially harmful aspects of feelingstowards the celebrity i.e. “ if X asked meto do something illegal as a favour Iwould probably do it”
  • 13. Absorption Addiction ModelMcCutcheon Most fans stay at level 1PSR‟s compensate for Fans with a weaker sense of„defects or lacks‟ personal identity or poorwithin their own lives. adjustment may “absorb” themselves in a celebrity‟sAllows an escape from life to gain a stronger sensereality. of identity. PSR are addictive so increasing sense of involvement with the celebrity is needed.
  • 14. Absorption Addiction ModelThis model therefore Celebrity Attitude Scalepredicts that there will Measures 23 attitudesbe an association on celebrities.between poorer mental PSR‟s into three levels.health and the strength These can be stages; aof parasocial person can move up therelationships. levels.To test this McCutcheonDevised (CAS)Celebrity AttitudeScale
  • 15. Maltby et al. (2001)Ps: UK students (126 Ps on level 1 had some degreemales+181 females) of social dysfunction,Completed 23 item CAS experienced loneliness in realand mental health life.questionnaire Ps on level 2 scored highly onmeasuring depression, anxiety and depression.anxiety and social Could not test for level 3 asdysfunction mental health questionnaire did not include items on serious problems with adjustment.
  • 16. Maltby et al. (2001) evaluation
  • 17. Evaluation of PSR• Support?• Challenge?• Are PSR really dysfunctional?• Benefits of PSR• Are PSR real?
  • 18. Pathological (2) view of PSR’sAttachment styles and Parasocial Relationships• Theory proposes insecure attachment leads to an increased interest in celebrities.• PSRs make no demands, and do not involve criticism or the risk of rejection.
  • 19. Attachment styles and Parasocial RelationshipsIt is thought that thosewho can be needy andclingy in relationships maybe more likely to developPSRs.This type of attachmentstyle is known as insecure-resistant (anxiousambivalent)
  • 20. Attachment style and PSRs Anxious- • Most likely to form PSRs • They have concern that others will not reciprocate their desire for intimacy. They turn to TV characters to satisfyambivalent their “unrealistic and often unmet relational needs” Anxious • Least likely • They find it difficult to develop relationships and therefore avoidant are very unlikely to seek them from real or fictional people. Secure • Not likely • Often have satisfactory real-life relationships and do not seekattachment as additional relationship with a celebrity.
  • 21. Support: Cole and Leets 1999Those with aninsecure resistantattachment styleturn to tv charactersas a means ofsatisfying their‘unrealistic and oftenunmet’ relationaldemands
  • 22. McCutchon (2006)Tested 3 hypothesis • Sample: 299 students (age1. Adults with insecure 16-42) attachment are more likely to • Procedure: become attached to used celebrity attitude scale celebrities than those with a and a stalking scale. secure adult attachment type.2. Insecure adults are more Measured adult attachment likely to agree with/condone using a relationship stalking and obsessive questionnaire behaviour towards celebrities. Measured childhood3. There is a correlation between attachment type through the stalking and pathological use of a parental bonding scale tendencies towards based on their recall of the attachment to celebrities. relationship with their parents before the age of 16.
  • 23. McCutchon (2006): FindingsThere was no Those with insecurerelationship between attachment types wereinsecure attachment more likely to think thatand the tendency to stalking was acceptableform PSR with and there was a relationship betweencelebrities. pathological attachment and the tendency to stalking. Therefore insecure attachment is a predisposing factor
  • 24. McCutchon (2006): Evaluation
  • 25. THE POSITIVE/ACTIVE VIEWJenkins & Jenson (1992)Parasocial relationships serve an important function:Fans enhance lives by taking active & positive roleCreate social networks (fan clubs)Fans develop sense of appreciation of others people‟s talentsEvaluationChamberlain et al (2008) examined idea that due to social power andstatus celebrities received more favourable treatment. However nodifferences found and social impact of celeb may be less than imaginedRichins (1994) individuals identified celebrities to construct theirself-concepts and identities
  • 26. StalkingStalking is obsessive behaviour focused on an individual which is unwanted and creates fear in the victim. Most victims of stalking are not celebs.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ALYijG7s7 s&feature=relatedMeloy (1999) suggests that „private‟ stalking there has been a relationship between the victim and stalker; in „public‟ stalking the victim is a public figure such as a celebrity.
  • 27. Kienlen (1998) – Stalking and Insecure Attachment TypesPREOCCUPIED Poor self image; constantly seeking approval from others’ StalkingSTALKER results from real or imagined rejection and is an attempt to restore a positive sense of selfFEARFUL Poor self image, but sees others as unsupportive and unreliable. Stalking isSTALKER a result wanting someone to boost self image but rejecting them because of a lack of trust. Stalking is a way of boosting self image.DISMISSING Is distant and aloof from others in order to maintain an inflatedSTALKER self image. When relationships fail this person may stalk out of revenge
  • 28. Support for Attachment Theory of Stalking• Kienlen et al (1997) – studied records of 25 stalkers & found disrupted childhood attachment and loss of an important relationship in the 6mths prior to stalking• Lewis et al (2001) found that stalkers have traits typical of insecure attachment such as ambivalent attitudes to those they have relationships with and emotional instability.
  • 29. • McCutcheon et al (2006) 266 university students, measured correlations between insecure attachment style and attachment to celebrities and tendency to condone celebrity stalking. Found that insecure attachment types more likely to condone celebrity stalking and are more likely to form parasocial relationships. NB – this is only a predisposing factor.
  • 30. Relational Goal Pursuit Theory of Stalking.Based on the assumption thatpeople desire relationships soif the ‘goal’ of having arelationship is thwarted peoplewill engage in extra effort toachieve it. If people havebeen rejected they magnifythe importance of therelationship goal. This leads tothoughts and feelings whichfurther magnify their efforts.
  • 31. Attaining a relationship is a lower-order goal linked to ahigher-order goal (e.g. happiness/improved self worth)and will be pursued in spite of resistance and obstacles.Failure to attain the lower-order goal and exaggerated beliefin the consequences of goal failure leads to rumination andexcessive pursuit is rationalised and belief in the ability toattain the celebrity relationship is reinforced.Attaining a relationship is a lower-order goal linked to ahigher-order goal (e.g. happiness/improved self worth)and will be pursued in spite of resistance and obstacles.Failure to attain the lower-order goal and exaggerated beliefin the consequences of goal failure leads to rumination andexcessive pursuit is rationalised and belief in the ability toattain the celebrity relationship is reinforced
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    Jul 23, 2017
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