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1. Individual Differences Psychopathology (Abnormality) 1 2. Specification Individual Differences – Psychopathology (Abnormality) Defining and ã Definitions of…
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  • 1. Individual Differences Psychopathology (Abnormality) 1
  • 2. Specification Individual Differences – Psychopathology (Abnormality) Defining and • Definitions of abnormality, including explaining deviation from social norms, failure to psychological function adequately and deviation from abnormality ideal mental health, and limitations associated with these definitions of psychological abnormality • Key features of the biological approach to psychopathology • Key features of psychodynamic, behavioural and cognitive approaches Treating Abnormality • Biological therapies, including drugs and ECT • Psychological therapies, including psychoanalysis, systematic de- sensitisation and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy In this topic we will revisit some of the approaches underlying psychology such as the Behaviourists and Freudian theory. It is therefore, good for you to read up on the underlying principles of these areas again. Opening Questions I want you to think about what abnormality is and what makes someone abnormal. Which of these people do you think is abnormal? 1. Jackson has recently split up with his long term girlfriend. He has become very withdrawn and has not been out socially since the split one month ago. Jackson has recently began drinking excessively at home and recently told his friend that he sees no point in going on with life. 2. Louise always puts things off until the last minute and never manages to get anywhere on time. She is late for class nearly every day and is now in danger of being thrown off the course. 3. Jezebel is an elderly lady who lives on her own. Her only friends are her cats and she has 25 of them. Her house is very messy and she spends most of her pension on cat food 2
  • 3. for her pets. She has even been known to make a pie out of Whiskas for herself. It can be very hard to define abnormality and it is a problem that psychologists and psychiatrists have always had. Our behaviour depends on so many factors and whether that behaviour should be considered abnormal or not also depends on factors, such as the social, historical and cultural context of that behaviour. Defining Abnormality Deviation from Social norms What is a social norm? ………….................................... …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… Give 3 examples of social norms in our society: …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… Give 3 examples of deviation from social norms in our society: …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 3
  • 4. Outline the deviation from social norms definition of abnormality (3) …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… Outline 2 limitations of the deviation from social norms definition of abnormality (6) …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 4
  • 5. Failure to Function Adequately This is an attempt to define abnormality which is based on an inability to cope with day to day life caused by psychological distress. Rosenhan and Selgman (1989) extended the concept of distress and failure to function to include a number of behaviours. Use your text book to outline four of these features (Page 317) Suffering Observer discomfort Maladaptiveness Unpredictability So this definition of abnormality focuses on everyday behaviour such as getting dressed and going to work or college and the maintenance of family and social relationships. When someone deviates from this and can no longer with perform functions such as these this definition would say they were abnormal. 5
  • 6. There are obvious cases where someone’s behaviour is preventing them from functioning adequately. How might the following individual’s behaviour prevent them from functioning adequately: 1. A person with agoraphobia …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 2. A schizophrenic patient with paranoid delusions …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… And there are times when a failure to function adequately does not necessarily mean a person is abnormal. What about the following: 1. A student a week before their A levels …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 2. A new mother …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… There are a number of limitations to this definition and you should learn at least two. Using your text book, and what we have 6
  • 7. discussed, outline the following limitations to Failure to Function Adequately. 1. We need to consider the context of the behaviour …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 2. Some mental disorders may not prevent a person from functioning adequately. …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 3. There may not be a simple link between abnormality and failure to function. People may not be able to function adequately due to social and economic reasons rather than mental health problems. For example: …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 7
  • 8. Outline the failure to function adequately definition of abnormality and give one limitation of this definition (6) …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… Deviation from Ideal Mental Health This definition focuses on what makes us mentally healthy rather than unhealthy. In this definition we attempt to state what ideal mental health is and then consider that deviation from these factors can be defined as abnormal. In 1958 Marie Jahoda argued that it was better to focus on common concepts to describe mental health and then look for deviation from these. She came up with 6 criteria that describe mental health. Using your books outline these six criteria. Self attitudes (self esteem) Personal Growth (self actualisation) 8
  • 9. Integration (resistance to stress) Autonomy Perception of reality Adapting and mastering the environment Outline 2 limitations of the deviation from ideal mental health definition of abnormality (6) …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 9
  • 10. Exam Question The following are different definitions of abnormality. A. Failure to function adequately B. Statistical infrequency C. Deviation from ideal mental health D. Deviation from social norms (a) In the table below write down which definition A, B, C, or D matches each example. Definition of abnormality Example of Definition The behaviour is very different from the behaviour shown by most people in the population The behaviour prevents the person from achieving self actualisation or personal autonomy The behaviour means that the person cannot cope with everyday activities (3 marks) (b) Select one of the definitions and explain one limitation of this definition. …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… (2 marks) 10
  • 11. The Biological Approach to Abnormality This approach of abnormality focuses on biological functioning and how this can cause abnormal behaviour. The biological is known as the illness model or medical model as it assumes that behavioural abnormalities are caused by faulty biological functioning and so sees it as a mental illness. The four main physical causes of mental disorders according to this model are as follows: 1. Infection …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 2. Neuroanatomy …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 3. Biochemistry …………………………………………………………………………… 11
  • 12. …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 4. Genes …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… One way researchers have studied the influence of genes is to use family studies and it has been found that some mental disorders do run in families. What is the problem of assuming this is down to genetic relatedness? …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… The most useful way of looking at the influence of genetic factors is to look at twin studies. Make sure you can define the following: 1. Monozygotic (MZ) twins 12
  • 13. …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 2. Dizygotic (DZ) twins …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 3. Concordance rate …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… What did Gottesman (1991) find on his research into MZ and DZ twins and schizophrenia? …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… What did McGuffin et al (1996) on his twin studies and depression? …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 13
  • 14. …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 1. Explain why the above research might suggest that there is a genetic basis to some forms of mental illness (2) …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 2. What other factor other than genes might explain these figures? (2) …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… Wender et al (1986) found that biology played a role in the development of depressions. People were 8 x more likely to develop depression if their biological relatives suffered from the disorder rather than their adoptive relatives. Answer these: If mental illness was 100% genetic what would the concordance rate be for disorders such as depression in: MZ twins?.............................................................................. In DZ twins?............................................................................ Is it? ………………………………………………………………. So do you think other factors are involved? …………………… 14
  • 15. What might these be?...................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................ Exam question One assumption of the biological approach to psychopathology is that abnormality is inherited. Explain how psychologists have investigated the genetic basis on abnormality. …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… (5 marks) 15
  • 16. Evaluation of the Biological Model Based on scientific research Takes away the blame from the individual Reductionist Stigma attached to label The Psychodynamic Model of Abnormality The main assumption of this model is that abnormal behaviour is psychological in origin. This model does not consider faulty biological functioning and looks to the importance of early childhood experiences and unresolved conflicts as the source of abnormality. Some key concepts The structure of the personality The id – 16
  • 17. The ego – The superego – The stages of Development Oral stage Anal stage Phallic stage Latency stage Genital stage At any of these stages we can have unresolved conflicts and if these are not successfully resolved they can result in fixation at that stage. This can result in behavioural problems later on. As a child our ego is immature and cannot deal with trauma or confusion and therefore it uses defence mechanisms as a coping strategy. The main defence mechanism is REPRESSION. Use the table to outline some of the major defence mechanisms Repression Denial 17
  • 18. Displacement Sublimation Regression Examples of Defence Mechanisms See if you can work out what defence mechanisms are being used by these people. Fallon has been seeing her boyfriend for 6 months and is very much in love. Recently she has found he doesn’t return her calls or text messages and keeps cancelling dates. Fallon trusts her boyfriend and understands he is very busy at the moment so might not have as much time for her. ………………………………………………………………………. Marsha is 14 and finds her home life very difficult. Her parents are very strict and do not allow her any freedom. Marsha is very intimidated by her father who expects a lot from his daughter and will not tolerate any weakness either emotionally or academically. Recently Marsha has been picking on another girl at school who is very shy and has few friends. 18
  • 19. ……………………………………………………………………………. Santa often feels irritated by people at work especially those he feels are not pulling their weight. He has very strong emotions towards some people in his department who he feels are slacking and letting the side down and gets so angry he feels like hitting them. After work Santa usually goes to the gym and he feels this helps him with his frustrations and anger. …………………………………………………………………………………. So in conclusion The basic assumptions of the Psychodynamic Model • The origins of mental disorders are psychological • They lie in the unconscious where repressed desires and traumatic memories are pushed in order to avoid anxiety • Intrapsychic conflict involving the id and the superego can affect a persons behaviour • Mental disorders have their root in infant and childhood experiences • Defence mechanisms are used by the ego and the major defence mechanism is repression. Others include displacement, denial and sublimation • Treatment of abnormality must involve gaining access to the unconscious (through psychoanalysis) the insight gained uncovers the causes of the behaviour Evaluation of the Psychodynamic Model Deterministic 19
  • 20. Not based on scientific research Largely ignores current factors Ethical implications for the responsibility of parents Notes 20
  • 21. The Behavioural Approach This approach focuses on the behaviour of the individual and behaviourists believed that abnormal behaviour was learned the same way as normal behaviour – by classical and operant conditioning. Classical Conditioning What is classical conditioning? …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… How can classical conditioning lead to abnormal behaviour? …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… What did Watson and Rayner (1920)find in their study of Little Albert? …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 21
  • 22. What does this suggest? …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… Complete this based on Little Albert UCS = ………………………………….. UCR = ………………………………….. NS = ……………………………………. CS = ……………………………………. CR = ……………………………………. What was paired to create the UCR?............................................................... Operant Conditioning This is based on the work of B.F. Skinner. Abnormal behaviour is caused by our past reinforcement histories Positive Reinforcement = …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… Negative Reinforcement = …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 22
  • 23. Punishment = …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… Social Learning Theory Based on Behaviourism, this theory suggests that we learn to behave in abnormal ways by observing others. Bandura studied this using the Bobo doll experiment …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… Research has shown tat some disorders such as phobias can develop through observational learning. What did Mineka et al (1984) find? …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… Evaluation of Behaviourists A reductionist approach 23
  • 24. Much of the research done on non- human animals Psychodynamic explanation believe the symptom is only the tip of the iceberg Focus on behaviour not person so does not label Can explain why there are cultural differences Notes 24
  • 25. The cognitive Model The Cognitive Model of Abnormality Assumptions • Mental disorders are caused by distorted thinking processes • It is the thinking processes that are maladaptive rather than the behaviour itself • It is the interpretations of events and distorted cognitions that lead to the behaviour • Emotional problems can be attributed to distorted thinking processes • These distortions are typically in the form of overgeneralisations, irrational beliefs, illogical errors or negative thoughts • Individuals can overcome mental disorders by learning to use more appropriate cognitions The cognitive model was founded by Albert Ellis (1962) and Aaron Beck (1963) These theorists believed that the major weakness with the BEHAVIOURAL model was that it did not consider internal mental processes but only looked at the exhibited behaviour. This model, therefore can be compared with the Behavioural model and be used to criticise it Irrational thinking can often be seen in the language people use. For example, people might use terms such as: I must, I ought, I should, e.g. 1. 2. 25
  • 26. 3. Ellis also believed that people catastrophize events. Example of catastrophizing: Maladaptive thinking leads to maladaptive behaviour and this can be seen in the following diagram. Ma
  • Engleza Juridica

    Jul 23, 2017
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