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1. Attachment Revision Booklet What is attachment? Write a definition here: ____________________________________________________________________ Name the 4 behaviours…
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  • 1. Attachment Revision Booklet What is attachment? Write a definition here: ____________________________________________________________________ Name the 4 behaviours that Maccoby (1980) said we would see between people with a good attachment bond: 1 seeking 2 distress on 3 joy on 4 general ____________________________________________________________________ Fill in the gaps: Schaffer & Emerson (19 ) suggested stages in the development of attachment: 0-6 weeks Asocial stage babies produce similar responses to objects and people 6wks – 6mths Babies prefer human comapany but no one specific yet specific attachments baby starts to show separation anxiety and fear of strangers 10-11 mths on baby shows attachment behaviour towards multiple people. Lesley Ravenscroft 2010
  • 2. Types of attachment (Individual Differences in attachment) Mary Ainsworth (1970) developed the S S technique to explore the different types of attachments between babies and their caregivers. Do you know the 8 steps of this technique? Write them here: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Positive AO2 about this technique: + it is a standardised method which allows for easy replication + Many studies have found similar results, suggesting this technique is reliable +Although it is a lab experiment and is artificial, it has considerable MUNDANE REALISM as children may be left alone with a stranger in playgroups or at home Negative AO2 about this technique: - leaving the baby alone with a stranger in a strange place was fairly stressful for the baby although this was short-lived.(ethics) - it is impossible to get fully informed consent froma baby and so researchers must rely on proxy consent (ethics) - this study may lack face validity as it simply tests the relationship between a baby and one carer rather than the attachment shown by the baby with all its carers.(methodology) Lesley Ravenscroft 2010
  • 3. Ainworth (1970) found 3 attachment types. Name them and fill in the gaps: Ainsworth explained the differences in attachment as resulting from the SENSITIVITY of the mother. (typical, we get all the blame!) This was supported by Van Ijendoorn & Kroonenberg´s meta analysis (see next section) which found a weak positive correlation – 0.24 – between attachment and maternal sensitivity. How does Kagan´s temperament hypothesis fit with this? Thomas & Chess (1989) studied 138 American babies and found 3 basic temperament types: easy babies, slow-to-warm-up babies and diffcult babies. How might this support or refute the idea of the baby´s temperament as an alternative explanation for differences in attachment? Belsky & Rovine (1987) said it was a mixture of babies´ temperament and mothers´ sensitivity and responses. Are attachment patterns the same across all cultures? It seems so. Van Izjendoorn & Kroonenberg´s (1988) meta-analysis of attachment studies found two important things: 1) Secure attachment is the most common attachment type in all cultures 2) Intra-cultural differences were much greater than inter-cultural differences These findings would indicate a Lesley Ravenscroft 2010
  • 4. universal, biological attachment behaviour, overlaid with some minor cultural variation. They also found minor variations in the patterns of insecure-avoidant and insecure-resistant across some cultures. These may be to do with a culture being COLLECTIVIST or INDIVIDUALISTIC. Our culture is __________________________________ AO2 evaluation, circle T for true or F for false: Answers on the bottom of the next page. Explaining How Attachments Are Formed We have looked at 2 competing theories about this. Fill in the table: 1T,2F,3T,4F,5T,6T,7T,8F,9F Lesley Ravenscroft 2010
  • 5. Here are some sentences that can be arranged into a 12 point essay based on the question ¨Discuss Learning Theory as an Explanation of Attachments¨ Which letters should go together to form a three paragraph essay? (first paragraph = outline – 6 marks, second paragraph positive AO2 and last paragraph negative AO2) Answer at bottom of next page. Paragraph one = Paragraph two= Paragraph three = Bowlby predicts severe consequences for individuals who suffer privation (i.e. never establish a monotropic relationship and a good internal working model) Is this borne out by research? Hodges & Tizard (1989) studied children who had spent the first 2 years of their lives in institutions. They were then either adopted or restored to their orginal family.In this longitudinal study, they did find residual effects for the individuals but not the ´affectionless psychopathy´ predicted by Bowlby Koluchova (1972) studied a pair of Czech twins who had spent much of their 5 ½ years locked in a cellar when their mother died.They6 were removed from the family and formed good relationships with their adoptive mother and sisters. Lesley Ravenscroft 2010
  • 6. They showed no sign of psychological abnormalities at age 14 and got married. Koluchova revisited them in 1991 when they were 29 and they had children and warm relationships with their families. Curtiss (1989) wrote about Genie. She had been kept in a small room, tied to a potty chair and had not been spoken to since she was an infant. When she was found, she could not chew, stand erect and knew only her own name and the word, ¨Sorry!¨ Education led to the recovery of many skills but her language and socail skills never fully recovered. Why might Genie´s case be different to the Czech twins´? (Think about length of time of privation, being alone or being with a brother. The Czech twins were adopted into families whereas Genie was institutionalised with a succession of carers.) THE BIG PROBLEM WITH MUCH RESEARCH INTO PRIVATION IS THAT IT IS BASED ON CASE STUDIES. ALTHOUGH THESE ARE USEFUL WHEN IT WOULD BE UNETHICAL TO REPLICATE CONDITIONS, WE CAN ONLY GENERALISE TO THE GENERAL POPULATION WITH MUCH CARE. Paragraph one =C, G, I, B, K, E Paragraph two=A, C, L Paragraph three = F, J, H Lesley Ravenscroft 2010
  • 7. In the 1950s Bowlby condemned childcare and nurseries as storing up emotional difficulties for the future. (However, we must not forget that he lived in a time when the men returning from the war and National Service expected to be employed. Therefore it would be useful for the Government to persuade women that they should stay at home and leave the jobs for the men.) What is the picture from research? It is mixed. Decide whether these studies provide evidence that childcare is bad for children´s social skills or has no real effect or has a good effect. (Answers on next page) B Anderssen -1992- infants A Durkin- 1995- infants in in childcare before 12 childcare before 12 months are months show enhanced more aggressive social skills C DiLalla -1988 found a negative correlation between time spent in D Clarke- Stewart -1989parents who E Schindler, Moely & daycare and pro-social place their infants in daycare may Frank – 1998 – found behaviour value independence and reflect this in that children who spent their parenting more time in daycare played more por-socially F Campbell, Lamb & Hwang – 2000 did a longitudinal study comparing social skills in children from age 18 M Mooney & Munton - 1997 reviewed 40 years of months and 15 years. They found research and concluded that there is no evidence that that high-quality daycare was daycare damages childrenś social development. associated with better social skills H Belsky – 2006- children in daycare have higher levels of problem behaviours, including aggression to peers I Field – 1988 – found that teachers rated children who had been to daycare as more J Borge et al – 2004 – showed that aggressive than their peers aggression was significantly higher in home-reared children than those G Maccoby & who had been in childcare. Lewis -2003 found that more hours spent in daycare L Melhuish -1990- found K Children have before age 4 ½ that children who had been different temperaments correlated with to daycare showed higher and different attachment more behaviour levels of pro-social styles, meaning some problems at school, behaviours such as sharing get more out of daycare and lower social and cooperation than than others skills home-reared individuals . Lesley Ravenscroft 2010
  • 8. Childcare has good effects:B, E, F, J, L Childcare has bad effects:A, C, G, H, I, Childcare has little or no effect: D, K, M So what are the implications for child care practices? The child needs to have a secure attachment from which to explore the world so many nurseries/ hospitals have a key worker system. (Goldschmied & Jackson, 1994) The key worker needs to be resposive and sensitive to the child´s needs. A high staff turnover makes this unlikely. Campbell et al (2000) found that children do better in smaller groups. This may make the environment easier to deal with as there are fewer strangers. Clarke-Stewart et al -1994 – notes that social development is better when children are in mixed age groups – resembling family strucures. Routines help the child to feel that their environment is predictable and so, reduce stress. Attachment bonds from home need to be maintained. The children are encouraged to bring in teddies etc from home so as to help with this. Practise writing a 12 mark essay on this because it hasn´t come up for a while!!!! Lesley Ravenscroft 2010
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