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1. Stress and Illness <ul><li>Stress, on its own, does not make you ill </li></ul><ul><li>It may increase your risk of illness…
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  • 1. Stress and Illness <ul><li>Stress, on its own, does not make you ill </li></ul><ul><li>It may increase your risk of illness </li></ul><ul><li>Stress has been linked to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune depression (immunosuppression) </li></ul></ul>
  • 2. Stress and Illness Stress Direct biological effects e.g. physical strain, hormonal changes Maladaptive coping behaviour e.g. smoking, drinking alcohol Emotionally mediated effects on diet and activity level Increased Risk of Disease
  • 3. Stress is not the same as ill-health, but has been related to illnesses <ul><li>Cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Immune system disease </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Ulcers </li></ul><ul><li>Skin complaints - psoriasis </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches and migraines </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-menstrual syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to the immune system when we are stressed? </li></ul><ul><li>The immune systems ability to fight off the antigens is reduced and we are much more likely to pick up infections as a result. </li></ul><ul><li>The stress is the not the cause of the illness but does make us much more susceptible to infectious agents by temporarily suppressing the immune system </li></ul><ul><li>This is IMMUNOSUPRESSION </li></ul>
  • 4. The Immune Response
  • 5. Activity <ul><li>Using the previous slide, (which I will put back on display), write a brief description of the immune response. </li></ul><ul><li>You have 10 </li></ul><ul><li>minutes </li></ul>
  • 6. The Immune System <ul><li>What are phagocytes? </li></ul><ul><li>What are T Lymphocytes? </li></ul><ul><li>What are B Cells/ T Cells? </li></ul><ul><li>You have 5 minutes to write about these. </li></ul>
  • 7. Stress & Immune Function <ul><li>Stress may adversely affect immune functioning through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversion of energy resources away from maintaining immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of stress hormones on immune processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maladaptive coping behaviours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence that all three play a part </li></ul>
  • 8. Activity <ul><li>A number of studies show evidence for the effect of stress on the immune system. Using the grid:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a small explanation of the three main studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write an evaluation for each of the three main studies. Think about methodology especially. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You have 20 minutes </li></ul>
  • 9. Stress & Immune Function <ul><li>Cohen & Herbert (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress associated with increased susceptibility to cold, flu, herpes virus, chickenpox </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bartrop et al (1977) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune suppression followed loss of intimate relationship through death or divorce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Levy et al (1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PPs who scored high on a scale of daily hassles had lower natural killer (immune) cell activity </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Stress & Heart Disease <ul><li>Kivimaki et al (2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly stressed workers were 2x as likely to die from heart problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sheps et al (2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress-prone individuals with heart problems 3x more likely to die from heart attack </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steptoe et al (2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress-prone individuals more likely to accumulate LDL ‘bad’ blood cholesterol </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Stress & Immune Function <ul><li>Evidence supports a weak link between stress and immune functioning </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship is mediated by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality & coping style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compared to impact of e.g. age, genes, nutrition stress is relatively unimportant </li></ul>
  • 12. Stress & Heart Disease <ul><li>Stress increases risk of cardiovascular disease – but is not a direct causal factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect is mediated by personality (stress prone-ness) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The mechanism is complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct effects and lifestyle-mediated ones are both likely to be important </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stress effects are clearest with pre-existing CHD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you have CHD stress will probably make it worse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But we still don’t know if stress causes CHD initially </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Activity <ul><li>What is the relationships between Chronic stress and the immune system? </li></ul><ul><li>Write about age and gender differences in the effects of stress on the immune system? </li></ul><ul><li>You have 15 minutes </li></ul>
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    Jul 23, 2017
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