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1. 542 REVISIONHopefully, by now, revision is well under way. This booklet is meant tosupplement your own revision notes, not replace them. Obviously, if indoubt, refer…
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  • 1. 542 REVISIONHopefully, by now, revision is well under way. This booklet is meant tosupplement your own revision notes, not replace them. Obviously, if indoubt, refer back to your class notes.For this unit 542, you need to know 15 key studies in details, and the mainassumptions, strengths and weaknesses of the 5 approaches(Physiological, Social, Cognitive, Developmental and IndividualDifferences.) and two perspectives (Psychodynamic & Behaviourist).The examination is on Tuesday May 29th and is two hours long. Mock 19thApril (12E), 23rd April (12C) or 26th April (12A) (depending on group)Section A: - Consists of 15 questions each worth 4 marks, one on eachkey study. (60 marks)Section B: - You will need to pick one study from a choice of three.This question requires detailed knowledge of your chosen study. a) What was the aim of your chosen study (2) b) Describe the sample and give one limitation (or strength) (6) c) Describe how the data was collected (procedure) (6) d) Give one advantage and one disadvantage (6) e) Outline the results (or conclusions) (8) f) Suggest two changes and their implications for results (8)Section C: - You will have a choice of two questions. They will be aboutapproaches or perspectives (Social, Cognitive, Developmental,Physiological, Individual Differences, Behaviourist and Psychodynamic). Itwill ask for examples from a particular study within that approach orperspective. (24 marks) a) Outline one assumption of the ________approach (2) b) Describe how the _________approach explains_________(4) c) Describe one similarity and one difference between______ and any other study from this approach (6) d) Discuss the strengths and limitations of the ______approach using examples from ________(12)Please familiarise yourself with the specimen exam papers you have beengiven. Make sure you don’t leave any blanks, attempt all questions. Younever know you could be right!!! 1
  • 2. 542 DevelopmentalSamuel & BryantAIM: - To look at the effects of asking one question rather than two in Piaget’sconservation task.PROCEDURE: - Lab Exp, Opportunity sample 252 children tested onconservation tasks.3 I.Vs – age (5, 6, 7 & 8), conditions (standard, one question &fixed array) and materials (mass, volume & number).RESULTS: - younger children made more mistakes than older children. Allchildren did better on the one question condition. Children made fewer errors onthe number tasks.CONCLUSION: - Piaget was wrong; children can do better if only asked onequestion. Piaget was right; there are qualitative changes as children get older. Section A1. A) Identify two of the conditions in this experiment. (2) b) Identify two factors that affected the children’s ability to conserve. (2) Section BSample?ResearchMethod?Results?Conclusions?Alternatives? 2
  • 3. 542BanduraAIM: - To see if children imitate modelled aggression in a new setting and toinvestigate sex differences.PARTICIPANTS: - Lab Exp, Opportunity sample 72 nursery children dividedinto 3 groups (aggressive model/non-aggressive model/no model). Subdividedinto boys and girls with same sex model or not.PROCEDURE: - model behaves aggressively or not. Taken to room with toysthen tested for delayed imitation in another room with aggressive and non-aggressive toys. Children observed for imitative behaviour, partially imitativebehaviour and non-imitative behaviour.RESULTS: - Aggressive model – group imitated specific acts and were moregenerally aggressive. Boys and girls more likely to imitate male models. Boysmore aggressive than girls.CONCLUSION: - children imitated the behaviour of an adult role model. Section A 1. a) Outline how the children were provoked to arouse mild aggression. (2) b) Why was this necessary? (2) Section BSample?ResearchMethod?Results?Conclusions?Alternatives? 3
  • 4. 542FreudAIM: - To provide support for Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of developmentand his theory explaining phobias.PROCEDURE: - Case study, Opportunity sample. Hans’ father recordedevents and conversations and sent these to Freud. Case study and ActionResearch.PARTICIPANT: - Hans aged 3-5 years during case study.DETAILS OF CASE STUDY: - Sources of anxiety came from his Mother(repressed sexual desire for her) and Father (Jealousy, Oedipus Conflict). Had aphobia of horses. The horse thought to symbolise his Father (blinkers, blackmouth and large penis). Had a number of dreams/fantasies including the giraffedream, marrying his mother and the plumber dream.CONCLUSION: - Support for Oedipus Conflict. His phobia representedunconscious anxieties. Section A 2. Freud suggested that Hans’ fear of horses symbolised his fear of his father. Outline two pieces of evidence that support this. (4) Section BSample?ResearchMethod?Results?Conclusions?Alternatives? 4
  • 5. 542 Section C Developmentala) Key Assumptions: An approach to understanding the human conditionthat covers the whole lifespan. Researchers use a wide range of methodsand techniques. The focus is on how behaviours are initiated and thendevelop. Typical areas of study include; emotional and moral development;how thinking develops and how children learn to communicate. Samuel &Bryan, Bandura, Freud.b) How does the developmental approach explain Aggression?How does the developmental approach explain Phobias?How does the developmental approach explain cognitive development(the ability to conserve)?c) Describe a similarity and a difference between the Samuel &Bryant study and any other which uses the developmental approach. 5
  • 6. 542Describe a similarity and a difference between the Bandura study andany other which uses the developmental approach.Describe a similarity and a difference between the Freud study andany other which uses the developmental approach. d) Strengths Weaknesses • Many studies are • Reliability of generalising longitudinal (e.g. Freud) results from small, ethnocentric samples (e.g. Freud, Bandura, Samuel & • Educational Implications, Bryant) particularly for spotting possible problems early and intervening (e.g. • Problems of interpretation Samuel & Bryant) and understanding involved with working with children (e.g. Samuel & • Practical Applications (e.g. Bryant) Bandura – limit aggression children are exposed to on TV) • Ethics of working with children (e.g. Bandura) 6
  • 7. 542 Individual DifferencesRosenhanAIM: - To investigate the reliability of psychiatric diagnoses and considerwhether abnormality is due to personality or situation.PROCEDURE: - Field exp, Self-selected Ps, Opportunity sample ofhospitals.8 pseudo patients sent to 12 hospitals in USA. Said they heard voicessaying ‘empty, thud and hollow’.RESULTS: - Admitted and average stay 19 days. Patients were depersonalised.Whilst in the hospital pseudo patients recorded their observations. Dischargedwith ‘schizophrenia in remission’.CONCLUSION: - Doctors made the mistake of calling a healthy person sick(type II error).In a FOLLOW UP study, staff in one psychiatric hospital were told to expectpseudo patients over 3 months.RESULTS: - 41 real patients were suspected.CONCLUSION: - this time doctors made a type I error as all patients weregenuine. This shows diagnosis is not reliable. Section A 1. In the study, the pseudopatients were incorrectly diagnosed as Schizophrenic. Give two possible explanations of why the hospital made this mistake. (4) Section BSample?ResearchMethod?Results?Conclusions?Alternatives? 7
  • 8. 542Thigpen & CleckleyAIM: - To record the case history of a patient with multiple personalities.PROCEDURE: - A case history, opportunity sample of a female who has twodistinct personalities Eve White and Eve Black. Eve White is demure and serious.Has headaches and blackouts and is referred to Thigpen & Cleckley. Whilsthaving therapy, Eve Black appears. She is flirtatious and adventurous. Thoughtto embody Eve White’s angry feelings. Eve White and Eve Black are tested usingpsychometric tests and projective tests as well as an EEG readingRESULTS: - EW has a high IQ of 110 and a repressive personality. EB has alower IQ of 104 and a regressed personality. A third personality ‘Jane’ appears.She is mature and bold and is more similar to Eve White.CONCLUSION: - diagnosed with MPD possibly linked to unhappy marriage andchildhood memories. Section A 1. a) Identify two psychological tests carried out on Eve White and Eve Black in Thigpen & Cleckley’s study. (2) b) Outline the findings of one of these tests. (2) Section BSample?ResearchMethod?Results?Conclusions?Alternatives? 8
  • 9. 542 9
  • 10. 542GriffithsAIM: - To consider whether gamblers are actually more skilful or whethertheir behaviour is better characterised by certain cognitive distortions.PARTICIPANTS: - Natural exp, self-selected and snowball sampling. 30Regular Gamblers (RGs) and 30 Non-Regular Gamblers (NRGs)PROCEDURE: - Each participant was given £3 to gamble on fruit machines in anatural setting. The role of skill was assessed objectively (behavioural measures)and subjectively (self-report), cognitive biases were assessed using the ‘thinkingaloud method’ and analysed using content analysis.RESULTS: - All four hypotheses were supported. Quantitative analysis –behavioural measures and content. Qualitative data – quotes from participants.CONCLUSION: - The real difference between RGs and NRGs is probablycognitive. Could be the basis for therapy for pathological gamblers (audioplayback therapy) Section A 1. Describe one similarity and one difference between regular and non-regular gamblers. (4) Section BSample?ResearchMethod?Results?Conclusions?Alternatives? 10
  • 11. 542 Section C Individual differencesa) Key Assumptions: This approach recognises that the human conditionis extremely diverse and questions the need to provide generalisationsabout behaviour. Studies are often focused on gender, cultural diversity,personality and pathological behaviour. Research uses a wide variety ofmethodologies. Rosenhan, Thigpen & Cleckley, Griffiths.b) How does the individual differences approach explain MPD?How does the individual differences approach explain gamblingHow does the individual differences approach explain problems withdiagnosis of mental illness?c) Describe a similarity and a difference between the Rosenhan studyand any other which uses the individual differences approach.Describe a similarity and a difference between the Griffiths studyand any other which uses the individual differences approach. 11
  • 12. 542Describe a similarity and a difference between the Thigpen & Cleckleystudy and any other which uses the individual differences approach. d)Strengths Weaknesses 12
  • 13. 542 • Favours dispositional explanations (personal) • Has led to improvements rather than situational in the treatment of the explanations of abnormal mentally ill. (e.g. behaviour. (e.g. Thigpen Rosenhan, highlighted & Cleckley, Griffiths) mistreatment of patients in mental hospitals). • Ethics of labelling someone as different. • Has led to the (e.g. Rosenhan – Sticky development of labels) psychometric tests. (e.g. Thigpen & Cleckley IQ tests, Ink blot etc. for • Focus on the individual diagnosing MPD) means we can’t generalise to others with similar conditions. (e.g. Thigpen • Has led to the & Cleckley) development of treatments for the mentally ill (e.g. Griffiths CBT for problems gamblers) PhysiologicalMaguireAIM: - To investigate the link between the hippocampus and spatialmemory/navigation.PARTICIPANTS: - Natural Exp, opportunity sample. 16 male taxi drivers inLondon and 50 age matched controls all right handed.PROCEDURE: - data analysed from MRI scans. VBM provided density of greymatter. Pixel counting of anterior, middle and posterior hippocampi gavemeasure of hippocampal volume. 13
  • 14. 542RESULTS: - Greater volume in the posterior region in right hippocampus oftaxi drivers. Anterior region greater in controls. Hippocampal volume correlatedwith time spent taxi-driving.CONCLUSION: - Demonstrates functional differentiation within thehippocampus which is due to experience. Shows plasticity in the brain Section A 2. a) Describe one commonly used brain scanning technique. (2) B) Suggest one reason why results gained from such scanning techniques should be treated with caution. (2) Section BSample?ResearchMethod?Results?Conclusions?Alternatives? 14
  • 15. 542SperryAIM: - to understand the capabilities of the left and right hemispheres.PARTICIPANTS: - patients with severe epilepsy who underwent split brainsurgery.PROCEDURE: - Natural experiment, opportunity sample. Patients tested onvarious tasks. Visual stimuli displayed to left and right visual field for 0.1second. Participants asked to state what they saw or identify object with theirhand behind a screen.RESULTS: - LVF or object in left hand (right hemisphere) – no verbal response.Left hand could identify. RVF or object in right hand (left hemisphere) canspeak or write with right hand name of object. Right hand could identify.CONCLUSION: - Left hemisphere contains language centres. Right hemisphereshows language comprehension Section AOutline evidence which indicates that language is processed in the lefthemisphere of the brain. (4) Section BSample?ResearchMethod?Results?Conclusions?Alternatives? 15
  • 16. 542Dement & KleitmanAIM: - To investigate REM activity and dream states.PARTICIPANTS: - Case study, self-selected. 9 adults, 5 studied intensively.PROCEDURE: - In sleep lab participants brain waves were monitored using anEEG machine. Participants woken at intervals during the night (either duringREM or NREM) and were asked to describe their dreams, if any.RESULTS: - REM activity roughly ever 90 minutes. High incidence of recall ofdreams during REM periods and a low incidence during NREM periods. Length ofREM correlated to dream-duration estimates (5 or 15 minutes) and number ofwords used to describe the dream. Eye movement patterns and visual imagery ofthe dream were linked.CONCLUSION: - Exclusive relationship between dream states and REMactivity providing an objective way of studying dreams. Section A 1. Dement & Kleitman suggest that REM only occurs during dreaming. Give one piece of evidence that supports this suggestion and one piece of evidence that challenges it. (4) Section BSample?ResearchMethod?Results?Conclusions?Alternatives? 16
  • 17. 542 Section C Physiologicala) Key Assumptions: Studies the biological basis of human behaviour.This may involve discovering localised function in the brain. This can bedone by working with brain-damaged patients but more recently involvesneuro-imaging techniques. Often focuses on the chemical basis for humanbehaviour e.g. serotonin and depression. May also consider the geneticbasis for behaviour. Maguire, Sperry, Dement & Kleitmanb) How does the physiological approach explain dreaming?How does the physiological approach explain differences in brainstructure in taxi drivers?How does the physiological approach explain the lateralisation of brainfunction?c) Describe a similarity and a difference between the Maguire studyand any other which uses the physiological approach. 17
  • 18. 542Describe a similarity and a difference between the Sperry study andany other which uses the physiological approach.Describe a similarity and a difference between the Dement &Kleitman study and any other which uses the physiological approach. d)Strengths Weaknesses • Scientific evidence, from • Reductionist – only considers technical equipment (e.g. biological evidence EEG, MRI scans etc) • Small clinical samples (e.g. • Practical applications (e.g. Sperry, Dement & Kleitman) Maguire – brain damage) • Ecological validity – lab tests • Control – reliable, easy to (e.g. Sperry, Dement & replicate (e.g. Dement & Kleitman) Kleitman) 18
  • 19. 542 SocialMilgramAIM: - To investigate the power of legitimate authority even when a commandrequires destructive behaviour.PARTICIPANTS: - Lab Experiment, self-selected. 40 men, differenteducation and occupations.PROCEDURE: - Teacher (naïve subject) experimenter (Jack Williams) andlearner Mr Wallace (actor). Word pair task. Teacher is instructed to punish thelearner for incorrect answers. Punishment is to give progressively strongershocks for mistakes. At 300 volts the learner bangs on the wall and stops.Experimenter encourages the teacher to continue using verbal prods.RESULTS: - 65% fully obeyed up to 450V.CONCLUSION:-Obedience due to the situation rather than personality in thestudy. The setting of Yale University may have played a part in their willingnessto obey. Section A 1. a) Describe one ethical issue raised in Migram’s study. (2) b) Describe what steps Milgram took to deal with this ethical issue. (2) Section BSample?ResearchMethod?Results?Conclusions?Alternatives? 19
  • 20. 542PiliavinAIM: - To investigate variables that affect rates of helping in an emergencysituation.PARTICIPANTS: - 4450 passengers on a NY subway.PROCEDURE: - Field experiment, Opportunity sampling. 4 confederatesboard train (2 female observers, 1 male model and 1 male victim). After 70seconds the victim collapses. I.Vs – Cane or drunk. Race. Model helpingconditions. DVs – Time for help to be offered. Total number who came to thevictim’s assistance. Gender of helper. Race of helper.RESULTS: - people helped most of the time, higher than in lab. Studies. Morehelp offered to cane victim. More help from males. More comments when no helpgiven. Diffusion of responsibility effect not found.CONCLUSION: - Arousal: Cost-Reward Model. Emergency situation createsarousal. Arousal heightened when empathy towards the victim and whenemergency continues. Arousal reduced by helping directly, getting help, leavingthe scene, labelling the victim as undeserving. Section A 1. Briefly describe the cost/benefit theory suggested by Piliavin, Rodin and Piliavin to explain how people behave when decided whether to help a victim. (4) Section BSample?ResearchMethod?Results?Conclusions?Alternatives? 20
  • 21. 542Haslam & ReicherAIM: - To study how people respond to inequality and tyranny.PARTICIPANTS: - 15 male volunteers matched and then randomly assigned as5 guards and 10 prisoners.PROCEDURE: - Experimental Case study, Self-selected sample. Mock prisonset up and filmed by BBC. Stringent ethical checks. Experimental Case Study.Planned interventions (IVs) – permeability, legitimacy, cognitive alternatives.DVs – observations and psychometric measures of social identification,compliance and depression. Saliva swabs taken to measure stress levels.RESULTS: - phase 1 rejecting inequality. Social identification low at start,increased in prisoners when groups became impermeable. Guards wereineffective. Willingness to obey decreased in prisoners after day 5. Depressiondecreased in prisoners but increased in guards. Phase 2 – embracing inequality.The new social structure of the commune broke down.CONCLUSION: - behaviour was explained by social identification. Section A 1. Outline two reasons why the prisoners were given uniforms. (4) Section BSample?ResearchMethod?Results?Conclusions?Alternatives? 21
  • 22. 542 Section C Sociala) Key Assumptions: Social approaches are concerned with how theindividual relates to others. A wide range of research methods andtechniques are used to study social interactions. Typically this areafocuses on how individuals behave in groups and how these may influencedecision-making. Milgram, Piliavin Reicher & Haslamb) How does the social approach explain obedience?How does the social approach explain helping behaviour?How does the social approach explain conformity to social roles?c) Describe a similarity and a difference between the Milgram studyand any other which uses the social approach.Describe a similarity and a difference between the Piliavin study andany other which
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